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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65 Lec2 - Last week we had an overview of the brain, its function, design, how it got there in our evolutionary history and individual development - as we move forwad in the brain, it gets more complex (cortex, newest evolutionary and deals with more complex things) - the brain adds on more and more complex processes - but we still have the primative aspects of the brain (eat, sex, territory protection but we make them more complicated, ex territory protection is not urinating on a fire hydrant, but having borders) - this week we will turn to the cerebal cortex in greater detail - the cerebal cortex at each of the lobes - not only how its functionaly divided, but also the coverings and the vascular supplies - throughout the course we will mainly focus on the cortex since it is where much of the complex activity takes place, and since it takes up most of the space of the brain The Cerebal Cortex and its Basic Makeup - the fist thing you see is that its not smooth (compare to other species like rats) - we keep trying to add on cells (evolutionary pressure to become smarter) - as the brain continues to expand, it goes to the back of the skull and it starts to crincle up - we must we aware that we end up with moutains and valleys and it gives a clear location (boundaries) of which area is responsible as what - the mountains refer to as Gyrus or Gyri for plural - when you look at the top of the brain, the two sides arent directly connected (or at least they dont look like it from the top) - looks like there is a grove, dividing the brain into the left and right half (right and left hemispheres) - the two are connected by a fiber pathway - the right hemisphere controls the lefthand side of your body and gets information from the lefthand side of the body and vice versa - the two hemispheres are connected, just not apparent from the top view; they are connected by a very broad fiber pathway called the Corpus Callosun; look at the photo where the top cortex has been taken off can see that the fiber connects the right hemisphere with the left; each side is connected to its similar region on the other side (talking between the two hemispheres) - there are 3 main fissures: 1. Longitudinal Fissure - right down the centre, separating the right and the left hemisphere (at the bottom of it is the Corpus Callosun) - just a deep sulcus 2. Central FissureCentral Sulcus - on each hemisphere, separates the anterior and posterior section of the brain - separates the frontal and the pridal lobes 3. Lateral FissureSylvian Fissure - it separates out a lobe as well (temporal lobe) = top and bottom - the Cerebal Cortex is subdivided not only into a left and right, but also separated into 4 lobes - different parts of it has different functions 1. Frontal Lobe - in the front; ends at the central sulcus 2. Parietal Lobe - just behind the central sulcus
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