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LEcture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65 Human Brain and Behaviour Lecture4 st 1 October, 2012 Midterm Exam November 5 ! th - Covers everything from the 22 and up Chemical Aspects of the Brain - Most psychiatric disorders are bio chemical by nature - Parkinson’s Disease- affects the dopamine, you can’t move, get out of chairs, shakes. Dopamine is under acted - Opposite of that is Schizophrenia- inherited a gene, that caused her dopamine system to be overacted - Dopamine is a transmitted substance in the brain. What can be done to bring the dopamine level up and what can we do to bring it down? - We try to understand the system so we can make better drugs. - Basic Process of how neurons work; neurons are cells that communicate information, they have membranes with channels that are able to open up, when they open up there is a size of sodium inside - Sodium has a positive charge, so when it comes inside the cell it makes it more positive - When the cell is sitting by itself it has a negative charge, when the sodium comes it and it becomes more positive. If it reaches a threshold all of the pores and channels in the area open up and a tremendous amount of sodium comes in, this is called fire. - What then happens is that it has an action potential, it starts in the axon and zips down the end of the axon (the nerve terminal) - Information flows from one end of the axon to the end of a dendrite - The information has to cross the synapse, everything on the left side is pre-synaptic and the left side is post synaptic - In the pre-synaptic side, there is the pre synaptic membrane, there are little packages (balloon like) called synaptic vesicles, inside of them there are little substances, called transmitter substances - The transmitter substances is realised in the synaptic cleft (the space in the middle) interacts with the synaptic cleft and causes an interaction, and this interaction causes the right side of the synaptic (the post synaptic) to open up and the sodium enters - If the sodium is strong enough it will ignite, if not it will just go back down. Question now, is how do we interfere to help with Parkinson’s disease and Schizophrenia? - We can either synthesis the transmitter substances- this means it has to be made - It is the first way we can interfere with something, we can make more of it, this is how we can help Parkinson’s Disease - Second thing is that is has to be stored or packaged inside the synaptic vessel - Then it has to be released upon activation, it is released from the synaptic vessel and into the synaptic cleft - Then it interacts with the receptor - There is too different ways to reduce the synaptic substance, first by reuptake and second by breaking down Parkinson’s Disease- we need to find drugs that will increase the functional activity of the dopamine - In terms of synthesis we want to increase the activity - In terms of packaging there is nothing we can do - In terms of release, you want to increase the amount of release, stimulating more receptors - In terms of receptor activation we want to increase the amount of activation. we want chemicals to go in a mimic the transmitter substances, so they can go on the receptor and act as if the real transmitter substance has been released - In terms of inactivation, if you want more activity you have to decrease deactivation, stop it from breaking down you want it to stay longer Schizophrenia- we need to find drugs that will decrease the functional activity of the dopamine - In terms of synthesis we want to decrease the activity - In terms of packaging we want to decrease it, there are chemicals to breakdown the excess - In terms of release, you want to stop it from releasing or slow it down - In terms of receptor activation, we want to decrease and slow down the receptor activity. We use a blocker to block the receptors, these chemicals look identical to transmitter substance but they don’t look enough like it to activate the receptor - In terms of inactivation, you would want to increase its destruction because it is going to slow the system down Types of Transmitters- The model is activation by reuptake 1. Monoamines (Biogenic amines) these transmitters are inactivated by breakdown - Catecholamine -Dopamine( DA) -Norepinephrine (NE) Synthesis: Tyrosine-> Dopa -> Da -> Ne - Seratonin (5HT) Sythesis : Trytophan -> 5HT -> 5Ht 2. Acetylcholine Sythesis : Choline-> Acetyl
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