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PSYB65 Lec 2 Function of the Cerebral Hemispheres, Brain Vascular Supply Etc.doc

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Ted Petit

Function of the Cerebral Hemispheres, Brain Vascular Supply, Cerebral Ventricles, Cerebral Coverings Sunday, October 28, 2012 7:09 PM • The Basic Structure of the Brain • The human brain is not smooth • Not enough space in our skull for a smooth brain • Starts off smooth but keeps growing • Forms little mountains and valleys • Sulci (sulcus) -the valleys • If they're really big, it's sometimes referred to as a fissure • Gyrus (gyri) - the mountains • Brain divided right down the center • Left and right hemisphere • Right side receives information from and controls the left side of the body and vice versa • If a person has some damage on one side of the body, the tumor is on the opposite side • Two hemispheres divided by longitudinal fissure - very large sulcus • Two hemispheres are connected to each other -corpus callosum • Corpus Callosum connects the two hemispheres - each part of the left is connected to the adjacent part of the right • e.g. right occipital lobe is connected to the left occipital lobe • 3 main sulci • Longitudinal Fissure • Central sulcus/fissure - separates frontal lobe from the parietal lobe (separates anterior and posterior) • Sylvian sulcus/fissure (or lateral sulcus or fissure) - runs up the side of the brain - separates the temporal lobe • Central cortex divided into 4 lobes • Frontal - front of brain • Parietal • Temporal • Occipital • Each lobe has a main primary function • Within each lobe are two types of cortex (tissue) - primary cortex and associational cortex • Primary cortex - responsible for performing some basic input or output function of that lobe. • The primary receptive area for a receiving part of the brain - basic input • Associational cortex - higher order functions - more recently evolved • The higher the % of associational cortex, the more evolved, more intelligent the organism • Brodmann - numbering the areas of the brain • Mapped the brain • Frontal Lobe - • Begins in anterior portion of the brain and goes backward to the central sulcus • Primary function - motor control, movement, planning and inhibition of inappropriate behaviours Associational cortex - long term planning • • Primary area (motor output area) - 4 & 6 • Pre-central gyrus - right infront of central sulcus--> this is the primary area • Diagrams • Motor cortex is not just organized randomly • Motor Homonculus - Discrete organization • Face paralyzed on right hand side - tumor on left frontal lobe, Brodmanns area 4&6, pre-frontal gyrus, over on the side (homonculus) •
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