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PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 6

Human Brain and Behaviour Lecture 6.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Human Brain and Behaviour Lecture 6  Petit mal- minor type of epilepsy o No true behavioral convulsions o Characterized by rolling up of the eyes/twitch o Person loses awareness 5-20 seconds o Not as debilitating as a grand mal seizure o People might not even realize they have them- might space out for a bit o 50-75% of the time it exists by itself- sometimes, it can occur in patients with other types of epilepsy o EEG is broad waves with big spikes spaced apart Visual System  Function is dependent on anatomy and organization  Retinas are dived down the center of each eye  Visual world when looking straight out (visual field) divided down the center where your nose is o Right visual field and left visual field o Must be looking straight ahead  Part of retina for the outside portion of head is the temporal portion of the retina  Part closest to your nose is the nasal portion  Two nerves cross- optic chiasm – nerves in the back of your brain come together as they head towards the brain – then they pull away and that’s called the optic tract  Part of your retina nerves from the temporal portion as it continues back it comes to the optic chiasm and stays on the same side of the brain- it does not cross!  The nasal portion of each retina (that half) whenever they go toward the optic chiasm they cross over and continue to the opposite side of the brain  Everything in the right side of the eye will hit the nasal portion of the right eye and the temporal portion of the left eye  Everything that you see in your right visual field goes to your left cortex- vice versa o Everything crosses over to the other side  Ask people to close one eye and move your hands and ask what they can see- you can tell exactly where the tumor is Patient’s visual field- slide  2- completely blind in the right eye- you will see nothing in an area you can normally see in  3- if you slice through the optic chiasm- cutting off the fibers that cross over- the nasal portion of each eye will be damaged  4- affecting the outside portion of the right eye- going to destroy the left portion of the right eye’s visual field  Neurons respond to bars of light at area 17, that’s oriented in a specific direction  Associational cortex responds to more complex information such as a face  If you get damage to the back part of the occipital lobe you will be very blind- macular sparring; you wont be completely blind, there’s a little spot in the middle where you can see- shouldn’t be there but it is!  If you have a small tumor you will lose portions of vision in your opposite visual fields  If the damage is very small it can result in a schetoma- a small area where you cannot see – small area of blindness caused by damage to the occipital cortex o If its very small, you may not even notice it o Everyone has a naturally occurring schetoma- but you don’t notice it  Visual objects are on right side, verbal things are on the left hand side generally  Visual agnosia- perceptual disorders o VISUAL AGNOSIA- inability to recognize objects for what they are; you can see them but cannot tell what it is – damage to the left occipital lobe o PROSOPAGNOSIA- inability to recognize faces; can see a person but cant rec
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