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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Lecture 2: PSYB65 September 20 , 2010 Chapters 2 and 14  As you move forward in the brain, the cortex is the newest evolutionarily  Territoriality: urinate on a tree humans still have this we have customs, flags, borders.its the same thing but these behaviours are just more complicated  CEREBRAL CORTEX: in greater detail: has lobes and is divided according to the functions, there are coverings (meninges) o Most of the brain is the cortex, there is planning, speech, visualization the cortex is NOT smooth (for humans) for other animals, it is. There is some evolutionary pressure that wants humans to be smarterthe cortex moves back and covers the whole brain, and it folds on itself, all the cells line the little grooves and this leads to mountains and valleys you can tell where each function ends and begins o SULCI (valleys) and GYRUS (plural: gyri) (mountains) really bug sulci are referred to as fissures. o If you look at the top of the brain, the 2 sides of the brain are not connected from the top view, but they actually are connected. The brain is divided into two HEMISPHERES (right and left). They are connected by a FIBER PATHWAY. The left brain controls and receives info from the right side of the body and the right brain controls and receives from the left side of the body the brain gets info about the environment, the info from the left side of the body goes to the right side of the brain o The two hemispheres are connected SLIDE2: CORPUS CALLOSUM the fibres move from the left to the right side and vice versa o The central portion of one side is connected to the similar side on the other o There are 3 main SULCI  when they are large  they are called FISSURES.  Longitudinal fissure is from the right to left.  CENTRAL sulcus/fissure: divides the brain in half; it separates the frontal from the parietal (or anterior from the posterior)  SYLVIAN (or LATERAL) Fissure: runs up the side of the brain and separates the temporal lobe o The brain is divided into 4 LOBES: FRONTAL(in the front), PARIETAL (behind the central sulci)(LOOK at the diagram,slide1), OCCIPITAL(the very back) and the TEMPORAL  Each lobe has a primary function, and each lobe is divided into two different types of cortices: primary cortex (performs some basic function) and an associational cortex within each lobe  PRIMARY cortex (for each): is the primary receptive (receiving) info from the outside (hot, cold, etc.)  MOTOR cortex (for each): controls the muscles, the output goes to nerve, and to muscle to your hand. MUSCLE OUTPUT  Sensory input motor output. o ASSOCIATIONAL cortex: processes the higher order computing, it is the newest (most recent) evolutionarily there is a greater percentage of association cortex compared to primary cortex for humans and other primates. More evolved species have more of cortex. o Because people are trying to understand how the cortex works Brodmann’s numbers labels the functions on the brain. o Slide3:  Area 4 and 6 is the primary area of the frontal cortex  Area 3,1,2- stripe of the parietal lobe  Area 17: the occipital lobe the info from eyes comes here. 17 is the primary area where the info from the eyes comes to.  41: deals with hearing, the primary receptive area in the temporal lobe, info from ears goes here  How did Brodmann number them?  he just did it randomly o Slide4: frontal lobe it starts at the most anterior part of the brain and it continues till the CENTRAL SULCUS (the division of the brain in half)the PRECENTRAL GYRUS’s primary function is that it controls motor movements. When you want to move your arm, it starts in the FRONTAL lobe  As you move more anterior in the frontal lobe, it is involved in planning you won’t be anywhere without your frontal lobe  And inhibits inappropriate behaviours! OH SNAP.  Brodmann’s area 4 and 6  it is located in the PRECENTRAL GYRUS(mountain)  The primary strip in the motor cortex o The way the motor strip is organized is not random o Slide 5: the blue strip is the motor striparea 4 and 6 o Slide 6: if you cut the strip if you stimulate close to the central sulcus, it causes twitching of the foot HUMUNCULOUS (little man) in the brain  As you move away from the motor cortex(dark blue)(slide5)you move into the association cortex(lighter blue) the further you move away from the motor cortex(further anterior) it is higher in funct
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