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Ted Petit (310)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Lecture 3, September 27, 2010 Chapters 3 and 14 EXAM is made up of the textbook and the lectures. The book: if it’s in the book, YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR IT. Wtf. If there is a date/year on the exam it’s to make you remember the answer NO QUESTIONS from BOXES. YESSSSS! QUESTIONS FROM only text, not in a box, not in a table Names: of people in the text, know themif the author talks about it a lot. st The midterm is from 5-7pm on November 1 , 2010 Real lecture: Today we’re going talk about the things that go wrong with the nervous system: strokes, tumours…  Problems in the vascular system (blood flow): when you get a blockage in the blood flowblood had oxygen and glucose...the brain is very metabolic so it needs lots of oxygen  Brain has a high metabolic rateshort period without oxygenvery bad for the brain  Heart attackno oxygen to brainbrain damage  Types of problems: o Cerebral vascular accident (CVA): most commonly known as STROKEstroke is used as the common reference. It is a severe interruption of the blood supply to the brain. This interruption results in a: ISCHEMIAproblem in the blood supply, not enough blood. When you get a blockage, there isn’t enough oxygen to the brain, it results in an ISCHEMIA. The ischemia produces dead or dying tissue produced an INFRACT (an area of the brain that is dying or dead). Person has a CVAISCHEMIAINFRACT. o The larger the artery, the more amount of brain damage that can occur. o ENCHEPHOMALACIA: lack of blood supply that is very slow. Stroke is much faster. A slow closing down of blood supple and brain tissue begins to get damaged. Reduced blood supplywhen this happens you see a SOFTENING of the brain tissue. Some cells are ok, some are dead, some are dying o TRANSIENT (temporary/on and off) ISCHEMIC (/not enough oxygen to brain/lack of blood flow) ATTACK (TIA): its temporary, it comes and goes. You get a temporary restriction of blood flow common symptom is “seeing stars” “blurry vision”, migraines. It goes away. Constriction of the muscles around the blood vessels; blood vessels surrounded by glial and muscle cells.  These vascular problems are caused by: o THROMBOSIS: a blockage formed locally. A blood clot that is caused right therein the brain, or heart…etc.) o EMBOLISM: is a blockage that breaks off from somewhere else. A block of plaque/cholesterol will break off, and travels around the body through the blood supplycan block an artery in the brain/ lodges in the brain. Lec3,PsyB65 1 o ARTERIOSCHLEROSIS: kind of like hardening of the arteries. a slow reduction in blood supply, leads to enchephomalacia.  Another type of problem: the nerve exploded. o CEREBRAL HEMMORAGE: a large loss of blood supply. Massive bleeding into the brain/brain tissue itself. It can be life threatening. It needs to be dealt with quickly. It is associated with high blood pressure. (i.e.: bike tireexplodes, too much air). Blood pressure needs to be controlled.  Another problem: SUBDURAL HEMATOMA o It’s a bleeding in the space between the brain and the skull (Between the Dura mater and the brain). o It’s the bleeding outside the brain in the meninges. When you get massive bleeding in the brain it will kill the tissuebut the subdural hematoma: bleeding outside the brain and Dura mater doesn’t kill the brain tissue, it just puts pressure on the brain. If its caught in time, the pressure can be relieved and no permanent brain damage will result o Slide1: the dark grey is the brain. The half circle on the left: is the hematoma...the left ventricle missing…drill the skull and drain the brain  MORE PROBLEMS: ANGIOMA o Collection or mass of enlarged, abnormal blood vessels o You are born with these…people live normally with these. It’s like a birthmark o Becomes a problem when: they burst due to high blood pressure… if you catch them in time, you can surgically fix them  ANEURYSM o Vascular dilation/Expanded blood vessel caused by localized problems in elasticity o Can lead to stroke if blood vessel bursts o Caused weakening in blood vessel/it loses its strength; it will burst and then lead to bleeding. o If detected, can be removed  CLOSED HEAD INJURIES o Caused by blow to the head that doesn’t break in to the brain itself. Doesn’t open the brain itself. o Brain swells, if minor it is a concussion, skull does not allow the brain to swell so it starts compressing itself leading to concussion. o If more extreme brain will continue to swell and will only go out through the exit where the spinal cord connects into the brain so it pushes against itself against the base of the brain, and since the major life processes are controlled at the base of the brain, person will die. o Slide2: people are driving along, and no seatbelt, hit head on the steering wheel. Damage to the
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