Lecture 3, September 27, 2010 Chapters 3 and 14
EXAM is made up of the textbook and the lectures. The book: if it’s in the book, YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE
FOR IT. Wtf.
If there is a date/year on the exam it’s to make you remember the answer
NO QUESTIONS from BOXES. YESSSSS!
QUESTIONS FROM only text, not in a box, not in a table
Names: of people in the text, know themif the author talks about it a lot.
The midterm is from 5-7pm on November 1 , 2010
Today we’re going talk about the things that go wrong with the nervous system: strokes, tumours…
Problems in the vascular system (blood flow): when you get a blockage in the blood flowblood
had oxygen and glucose...the brain is very metabolic so it needs lots of oxygen
Brain has a high metabolic rateshort period without oxygenvery bad for the brain
Heart attackno oxygen to brainbrain damage
Types of problems:
o Cerebral vascular accident (CVA): most commonly known as STROKEstroke is used as
the common reference. It is a severe interruption of the blood supply to the brain. This
interruption results in a: ISCHEMIAproblem in the blood supply, not enough blood.
When you get a blockage, there isn’t enough oxygen to the brain, it results in an
ISCHEMIA. The ischemia produces dead or dying tissue produced an INFRACT (an area
of the brain that is dying or dead). Person has a CVAISCHEMIAINFRACT.
o The larger the artery, the more amount of brain damage that can occur.
o ENCHEPHOMALACIA: lack of blood supply that is very slow. Stroke is much faster. A
slow closing down of blood supple and brain tissue begins to get damaged. Reduced
blood supplywhen this happens you see a SOFTENING of the brain tissue. Some cells
are ok, some are dead, some are dying
o TRANSIENT (temporary/on and off) ISCHEMIC (/not enough oxygen to brain/lack of
blood flow) ATTACK (TIA): its temporary, it comes and goes. You get a temporary
restriction of blood flow common symptom is “seeing stars” “blurry vision”,
migraines. It goes away. Constriction of the muscles around the blood vessels; blood
vessels surrounded by glial and muscle cells.
These vascular problems are caused by:
o THROMBOSIS: a blockage formed locally. A blood clot that is caused right therein the
brain, or heart…etc.)
o EMBOLISM: is a blockage that breaks off from somewhere else. A block of
plaque/cholesterol will break off, and travels around the body through the blood
supplycan block an artery in the brain/ lodges in the brain.
Lec3,PsyB65 1 o ARTERIOSCHLEROSIS: kind of like hardening of the arteries. a slow reduction in blood
supply, leads to enchephomalacia.
Another type of problem: the nerve exploded.
o CEREBRAL HEMMORAGE: a large loss of blood supply. Massive bleeding into the
brain/brain tissue itself. It can be life threatening. It needs to be dealt with quickly. It is
associated with high blood pressure. (i.e.: bike tireexplodes, too much air). Blood
pressure needs to be controlled.
Another problem: SUBDURAL HEMATOMA
o It’s a bleeding in the space between the brain and the skull (Between the Dura mater
and the brain).
o It’s the bleeding outside the brain in the meninges. When you get massive bleeding in
the brain it will kill the tissuebut the subdural hematoma: bleeding outside the brain
and Dura mater doesn’t kill the brain tissue, it just puts pressure on the brain. If its
caught in time, the pressure can be relieved and no permanent brain damage will result
o Slide1: the dark grey is the brain. The half circle on the left: is the hematoma...the left
ventricle missing…drill the skull and drain the brain
MORE PROBLEMS: ANGIOMA
o Collection or mass of enlarged, abnormal blood vessels
o You are born with these…people live normally with these. It’s like a birthmark
o Becomes a problem when: they burst due to high blood pressure… if you catch them in
time, you can surgically fix them
o Vascular dilation/Expanded blood vessel caused by localized problems in elasticity
o Can lead to stroke if blood vessel bursts
o Caused weakening in blood vessel/it loses its strength; it will burst and then lead to
o If detected, can be removed
CLOSED HEAD INJURIES
o Caused by blow to the head that doesn’t break in to the brain itself. Doesn’t open the
o Brain swells, if minor it is a concussion, skull does not allow the brain to swell so it starts
compressing itself leading to concussion.
o If more extreme brain will continue to swell and will only go out through the exit where
the spinal cord connects into the brain so it pushes against itself against the base of the
brain, and since the major life processes are controlled at the base of the brain, person
o Slide2: people are driving along, and no seatbelt, hit head on the steering wheel.
Damage to the