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Ted Petit

Lecture4, October 4, 2010 Chapter 2, 3 and 14  The physiology and chemistry of the brain  Only one slide for this week, figure3.4:slide 1  Information comes into the dendrites and then there is an action potential  What happens when there is an excitatory stimulussodium moves in, and the ICF becomes more positive, as it becomes more positive, it reaches a potential and causes ion channels to open up and that’s when the sodium moves in  When you get a little sodium in, it reaches a threshold and opens EVEN more sodium channels and the neuron fires and that’s called: ACTION POTENTIAL: a positive electrical charge across a membrane by the influx of Na ions  The terminal button on the presynaptic sidesynaptic cleft SYNPASE!postsynaptic side o Presynaptic: has synaptic vesicles, when the action potential comes the SV fuse to the membrane and release the NEUROTRANSMITTER o Postsynaptic: has the receptors and take in the neurotransmitters  Parkinson’s: not enough dopamine in the brain (Michael J. Fox)  Schizophrenia: too much dopamine in the brain (prof’s sister)  Life cycle of a neurotransmitter: (slide1) o 1. Synthesis: it has to be made, manufactured. Take two basic ingredients and make them combine o 2. Storage: can be critical, floating around in the presynaptic will be recycled and destroyed by other chemicals, they need to be packaged and ready to use o 3. Release: released when there is an action potential, but there are other times when it isn’t needed. Released on stimulation o 4. Receptor interaction: on the postsynaptic side o 5. The NT has to be taken away; if it’s always there then it won’t really transmit any info. Method of inactivation: two ways:  Reuptake  Breakdown, degradation o There are always chemicals that are ready to breakdown the NT  You can only do to things to a system: increase or decrease o Functional activity of a system could be increased or decreased o Increase:  SYNTHESIS: for J.FOX we want to increase the functional activity of dopamine. Give him more L-dopa and that will make more dopamine. To increase the functional activity of a system: you increase the synthesis of that NT  PACKAGING: for FOX: increase the packaging, don’t want anything to be leaky. He doesn’t know if there is a drug that does do this  RELEASE: for FOX: you want to increase it, to increase the action potentials  RECEPTOR ACTIVATION: for FOX: put a mimic  MIMICKERS: look like the NT but, it’s not the NT. If you look at the NT they look similar, but aren’t. they activate the receptors the same way Psyb65, LEC4, 1  BLOCKERS: There are other chemicals that look like the NT, enough to sit on the receptors. It sits and fits perfectly in the receptor but doesn’t activate the channel  INACTIVATE: for FOX: by decreasing the inactivation you double the activity of the NT o Decrease:  SYNTHESIS: for his sister: you want to decrease the dopamine  PACKAGING: for sister: decrease the packaging, so the dopamine will be destroyed/broken down  RELEASE: for his sister: decrease  RECEPTOR ACTIVATION: for sister: put blocker  INACTIVATE: for sister: increase the inactivators to breakdown more of the dopamine.  Classic transmitters: what they are, how they’re made o MONOAMINES: (BIOGENEIC AMINES)  Catecholamine’s:  DOPAMINE (DA)  NOREPINEPHRINE(NE)also known as noradrenaline (NA)  How are they made: by TYROSINEDOPADOPAMINENOREPINEPHRINE. In neurons that require norepinephrine, dopamine is used to make it instead of dopamine being used as a neurotransmitter. The things that take to make a transmitter are called PRECURSORS.  To treat J.Fox you give him L-Dopa, which increases the synthesis of dopamine.  SERATONIN: (5HT)  Tryptophan5OHT5HT (5-hydroxytrptamine)  All of these are inactivated through reuptake (monoamines and serotonin) o ACETYLCHOLINE (Ach)  Synthesis: Choline +ac
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