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lec 3 - nervous system.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

lec 3 – nervous system Midterm – Nov 4 (3-5pm) - Q from Text and lecture - Don’t need to know dates or names (unless the name is very important) - KNOW TEXT not tables - M/C exam - Monday lecture on Oct 31 is not on the midterm Things that go wrong with the brain Problem in vascular system - Blood carries oxygen and sucrose (can only survive without O2 for 3 mins) - Brain has very high metabolic rate o Easy to get damaged from lack of blood flow - Oxygen is much more important - Glucose deprived -> not so much neurological, but more physical - There’s no O2 backup system, but glucose has storages Types of problems: 1) BLOCKAGES a) Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) - Blockage of blood flow a. Most commonly referred to as a “stroke”, but CVA is more specific b. Severe interruption of blood supply of the brain c. Interruption results in “ischemia” i. Ischemia => not enough blood glucose / oxygen - disruption of blood oxygen in brain d. Ischemia produces dead or dying tissue called “infarct“ i. area of dead or dying brain tissues b) encephlomalacia (slow) a. lack of oxygen or blood but it’s slow b. result of very slow reduction in blood supply c. “softening of brain tissue” -> some damaged but not completely dead c) Transient ischemic attack (TIA) a. Transient -> temporary, not permanent b. Ischemic -> lack of blood flow/ oxygen c. Common -> a lot of people have experienced d. Associated with vascular constriction and get lack of blood to brain i. I.e. Migraine headache (not all) ii. Muscular contraction of blood supplies e. Experienced a blurring in vision f. Not sufficient enough to cause brain damage permanently Causes of disruption in blood flow 2 things that cause an obstruction in the brain: - Thrombosis -> “locally formed” blockage (can be caused by a blood clot) - Embolism -> blockage broken off from one place and causes a blockage elsewhere o I.e. Cholesterol or platelets from blood clotting - Arterial sclerosis -> slow general clogging of arteries resulting in slow reduction of blood supply o Results in encephlomalacia o Happens more in elderly -> hardening of arteries Necrosis -> already dead cells in the area, long term dead cells 2) Blood vessels bursting (inside the brain) o Cerebral haemorrhage  Massive bleeding into the brain tissue itself  Can be life threatening  Most often associated with high blood pressure (cause)  Kills tissues where the blood bleeds to 3) Subdural hematoma ( Subdural: between dural and skull) a) Massive bleeding into space between skull and brain itself ( it can be fatal) a. Bleeding outside of brain in meninges area b. Does not kill brain tissues directly or caught in time c. Puts pressure on brain – treatable of if not caught -> more pressure -> damages brain d. Image: lateral ventricle pushed over and see grey brain area pushed over also 4) Angioma (血管瘤) a. A collection or a mass of enlarged abnormal blood vessels i. Born with them, inherently weak ii. Could lead blood in wrong direction or burst which leads to haemorrhage (出血) 5) Aneurism (动脉瘤) a. Vascular dilation b. Expanded blood vessel caused by localized problems and elasticity c. Generally no symptoms and leads to strokes Primary causes of stroke - Blockage of blood - Blood pressure Closed head injury - Blow to head but doesn’t open skull/brain - Brain gets slammed into skull o I.e. Hitting head to steering wheel, head front to tree o Brain slams from of skull - Contra coup (countercoup) o Double tapping -> bash one side but ricochet to the other side Brain Tumour - Caused by cancer o Mass
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