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Ted Petit (310)

lec 4 - more brain functions and errors.doc

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Ted Petit

Oct 1 lec 4 – more brain functions and errors Physiology and chemistry of brain – simple Physiology of neuron - Dendrites gets info - Action potential created o Starts in dendrite o Starts out –ve o Ion channels open o Na+ pours in  Becomes +ve inside and reaches a threshold(high +ve) and recovers  Drops back down o Moves across axon o Reaches nerve terminal - Synapse o Synaptic cleft ·– gap between 2 neurons - Pre-synaptic (axon-nerve term) o Released info (neurotransmitter – chemicals) o Synaptic vesicles carries neurotransmitters  Fused with pre-synaptic membrane to release transmitter substance - Post-synaptic (dendrite) o Receives info o Transmitters causes channels to open  Na+ in and action potential starts Neurotransmitters - Many transmitters o I.e. dopamine - Need to think of it in terms of diseases - Parkinson disease o Lower dopamine – deficient levels o Under exited dopamine - Schizophrenia o High levels of dopamine o Over exited dopamine levels - On slide: st o 1 ndnthesized – making them o 2 storage – storing transmitter  There are chemicals that break down transmitters, so packaging protects rd o 3 release  Moved to pre-synaptic membrane  Needs stimulation to release o 4 receptors  Interacts with post-synaptic receptors o 5 inactivation  Leads to reuptake or degrading transmitter to destroy o 6th – reuptake or degradation  Reusing transmitter  Chemicals float around in synaptic cleft to break down transmitter Functional activity of a system could be either: - Increased or decreased Ex: Michael J. Fox – Parkinson – low level of dopamine Prof’s sis (Wanda) – schizophrenia – high level of dopamine MJF( Parkinson ) Wanda( Schizophrenia ) Synthesis Increase level of Lower level of dopamine dopamine Packaging Not sure Decrease packaging -chance to get broken down Release Increase activity Decrease release Receptor activation Add mimicker to mimic Blocker (block receptors) dopamine Inactivation Decrease – don’t break Increase – break down down transmitter -slow down activity Mimickers - Mimics transmitter and looks exactly like it - Chemicals that look similar, activate same way - Recall competitive inhibition -> imitators would fit in receptors also Blockers - Fits in receptors but do not activate ion channels Would increase reuptake help? Depends on the situation (in theory vs. reality are different) - Parkinson’s o Less neurons o Less synapses Basic transmitters – used most often Groups: 1. Monoamines (biogenic amines) -all inactivated by reuptake a. Catecholamine’s i. Dopamine (da) ii. Norepinephrine (ne or na) – nore-adrenaline 1. Synthesized: Tyrosine -> dopa -> DA -> NE (makes dopamine before gets to NE) a. L-Dopa is used to increase synthesis for Michael J Fox b. Serotonin ( 5HT ) i. Synthesized: Tryptophan -> 5OHT -> 5HT ii. 5ht - 5-hyrdoxy-tryptamine iii. 5oht – 5-hydroxy-tryptophan 2. Acetylcholine (ACL) a. Choline + Acetyl CoA -> ACL b. Primary method of inactivation: breakdown by ACLE (acetylcholine esterase) Epilepsy 癫痫 - Description: A repetitive discharge of a hyper excitable aggregate (collection) of neurons - Behavioural: convulsions – jerking movement -> not always, sometimes o Not brain flopping around - Normally brain – neurons all doing different things - Collections of neurons all doing the same thing at the same time
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