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lec 6 - psychiatic disorders.docx

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Ted Petit

Oct 24 – lecture 6 – psychiatric disorders Midterm Nov 4 3-5pm AC223 50 questions, 25 on lecture, 25 textbook – all MC (READ TEXTBOOK) This lecture inclusive, not next No pictures/photos No diagrams Quite details No sample questions Psychiatric disorders, degenerative disorders Alzheimer Disorders: Mostly Neurological condition -> genetics - Not all psychological Schizophrenia - Very debilitating - All about hallucinations and delusions o Hallucinations  Hearing voices  God’s voice  Random people  Seeing illusions (seeing things)  “weird things happening to them” o Delusions  belief in something  Walk in zigzag -> alien zapping  Old ppl having sex under window  hears that  Stay away from electrical socket  getting zapped - Age of onset  early adulthood til 30 ish - Has many types of schizophrenia  complicated o Paranoid o Some other stuff - Not just 1 gene involved in schizophrenia  “really messy” o About 5 genes (some higher, some lower)  Some in depression, some mania - Affects many different transmitter systems - Neuropsychological problems? o Poor performance in frontal lobe tasks o Poor verbal and nonverbal memory o Dopamine levels weird o Most neuropsych test show that they are normal - Brain: o Enlarged ventricle o Lighter brains - Medications: o Makes time tired and not themselves – fatigue o Like tranquilizers -> does affect brain  Poor memory? Brain weight? Possibly not sure - Genetics: o 1% (1/100) are schizophrenic  Prevalent (not like 1 out of 1 million) o Members of immediate family (from the 1% person)  10-15% are schizophrenic (pretty high)  Suggests genetic disorder  Looked at twins:  Dizygotic – not identical o 10-15% other twin is schizophrenic  Monozygotic – identical o 40-75%  Suggests not 100% genetic - Psycho-pharmacology: o Anti - histamine  Histamine -> causes drowsiness  Calming down to calm down schizophrenia o Most effective drugs are dopamine antagonists o Most used drugs:  Phenothiazine’s – class of drugs o Most common prescribed:  Chlorpromazine  Most common and effective tool before  Block receptor site for mono amines (biogenetic o Dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin o Most effective - Drugs are selective - > dopamine receptors o If used drugs to stimulate dopamine receptor  can cause schizophrenic symptoms  Symptoms reappear or get worst  i.e. amphetamine – ecstasy  People with stimulated dopamine receptors -> hard to differentiate from others with schizophrenia  Once drug effects are gone  goes back to normal o Neuro-chemists  Looked at dopamine levels in dead schizophrenic brain -> normal levels  Looked at receptors  6x the receptors than normal person  D4 receptors  Some people born with more  Maybe over expressed gene that makes dopamine receptors o Starting to developing newer drugs that do more than block dopamine and is “cleaner” REMEMBER: Parkinson has low levels of dopamine o Give too much dopamine -> schizo like hallucinations o Block too much dopamine -> like Parkinson light symptoms o These disorders are at extremes of dopamine levels - A test: o 12 cases of monozygotic twins (wtf -> look at conditions) st  All separated in 1 year of life  no family issues  One of the twins is schizophrenic  9/12 of other twin is schizophrenic  Suggests genetic disorder -> predominate, not purely - Schizo-affective disorder Schizophrenic patients don’t like taking drugs - Makes them tired and feels different Affective disorders Problems in “affect” - Depressed, emotional disorder, manic - Mania and depressed at both ends o Bipolar has both (goes from schizo to manic then repeat - Depression: o Really really sad o Suicide and stuff  Kills people o Eat a lot or not eat o Tired to do anything  Sleep a lot or not - Manic o Super excited about life  feels great at the time o Can be delusional o Doesn’t last long  Feels really good at the time  Story: person was excited about writing a book  Quit job, bought expensive car, moved to LA  Once manic calmed down then they are like fooook o Manic patients refuses to take meds  Makes them feel down because not excited  But more compliant than schizophrenia Fr
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