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Lecture 3

PSYB65- Lecture 3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65- Lecture 3  Vascular disorders  Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)- also use the term stroke; severe interruption of blood supply to the brain; disruption in blood supply results in ischemia which means the brain is not getting enough oxygen, blood (insufficient supply of oxygen, nutrients); if this is severe enough, then you will get death of a part of the brain; infarct means dead or dying issue; so a blockage results in ischemia, then that causes an infarct; this blockage of blood flow can be very fast or very slow (very fast is very common); blockage can happen very slowly over time through the build-up of cholesterol, which can lead to a slow reduction in cognitive capacity; most of the time you see in hospitals when it happens all of a sudden such a stroke; the kind of damage depends on what artery was blocked  Encephomalacia- a very slow reduction in the brain blood supply which causes an accumulation of small amounts of damage; causes the softening of brain tissue; tends to occur more in the elderly  Transient ischemic attack- reduction in blood supply caused by the musculature on the outside of the blood vessels contracting; temporary; not enough to kill the neurons; the muscles eventually relax, and blood supply continues and everything is fine; can be caused by migraine headaches;  Thrombosis and embolism are the two things that can cause a sudden obstruction of the brain; thrombosis is a locally formed blockage in the artery, and can be caused by something like a blood clot formed in the brain; embolism is what happens when something is going on some other part of your body, an obstruction (some sort of cholesterol formed plaque) outside of the nervous system that breaks off from an artery somewhere and travels until it gets to the brain and blocks it solid  Blood clots can be dissolved easily and thus are better to have than a plaque of cholesterol  Cerebral haemorrhage means a blood supply inside the brain that bursts; bleeding inside the brain; typically happens in the elderly because blood pressure tends to increases as we mature; sometimes also called a stroke  Subdural hematoma is bleeding between the skull and the outside of the brain, and not into the brain itself; caused by the bursting of blood vessels in the subarachnoid space  If blood vessel bursts inside the brain, it destroys that part of the brain (cerebral haemorrhage)  Cerebral haemorrhage is much more dangerous than a subdural hematoma which can be subdued by alleviating pressure  Angioma is a collection or a mass of enlarged, abnormal blood vessels; happens before you’re born (sort of like a birth mark); by themselves, they don’t have to be serious because as long as they can get the blood where it needs to go then you’re okay; they are by their nature, inherently weak, and they are not as strong as a normal blood vessel  Aneurism is an expansion of a weakened part of a blood vessel or a vascular dilation, and this is caused by problems in the elasticity of the blood vessel; sort of like having a weak spot in your blood vessel; very prone to bursting; if it bursts inside of the brain then it is a cerebral haemorrhage, outside is subdural hematoma  Closed head injury- no open wound; most common is because someone was moving at a fairly reasonable speed and come to a sudden stop (not wearing a seatbelt); majori
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