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Psychology (7,620)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 6

PSYB65- Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65- Lecture 6  Psychiatric Disorders  Schizophrenia- most commonly associated with hallucinations and delusions; age of onset is from early 20s to about 30; neuropsychological tests show that people with schizophrenia in frontal lobe tests, as well as tests of memory (verbal or nonverbal), and most other neuropsychological tests show that they are completely normal; do show enlarged ventricles, and lighter brain weight; genetic studies- 1% of the population is schizophrenic, 10-15% of immediate family is schizophrenic, dizygotic twins had 10-15% concordance, monozygotic twins had 40-75% concordance; antihistamines had a calming effect on patients; the drugs that were most effective were dopamine antagonists (reduce functional activity of dopamine), particularly phenothiazine and within that class chlorpromazine being the most commonly used/effective; these drugs blocked the receptor sites for the biogenic amines/monoamines such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin; the ones that blocked dopamine receptors were the most effective; dopamine stimulants such as amphetamines could do two things- cause schizophrenic symptoms in completely normal individuals; no difference in the amount of dopamine in the brains of schizophrenic patients from normal persons; the difference was in the number of dopamine receptors (D4)  Mood Disorders  Depression and Mania  Early research was done again by mistake, they gave people blood pressure medication (Aldomet was the primary one that was used) which caused people to get depressed; these chemicals caused a reduction in the monoamines (biogenic amines), the big one was reserpine which caused the monoamines to leak from the synaptic vesicles (not to be packaged very well); Aldomet was found to reduce the synthesis of norepinephrine and also caused depression; which all suggested that depression was caused by the reduction of monoamines; 20-25% of patients have a reduction in 5HIAA (a metabolite of serotonin) which suggested that there was a reduction in serotonin in depressed patients; they also found that serotonin itself, not just the breakdown product, was reduced in the brains of suicide patients; the most effective chemicals were the tricyclic antidepressants (most recently tetracyclic) which all block serotonin, norepinephrine reuptake; both of them had an increase in serotonin and norepinephrine, but had very little to do with dopamine; thus, it is believed that dopamine plays very little role at all in depression, but does so in schizophrenia; tryptophan, is a precursor to serotonin, it increases levels of serotonin and is also effective in getting rid of depression; monoamine oxidase (MAO) is the chemical that destroys the monoamines in the cell when chemicals are floating around th
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