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Ted Petit

University of Toronto 1 PSYB65 Human Brain and Behavior Sayanutha NiranjanChapter 13Neural Development Early DevelopmentEarly in embryonic lifeapprox 3 weeks after conception the neural plate formsNeural Plate a patch of cells on the dorsal surface of the embryo that becomes the nervous system It is formed from the ectoderm which is the outermost 3 layers of cells of the early embryo which also form the skin This eventually forms a groove to produce the neural tube the inner section forms ventricles and as the cells proliferate more forms the bumps and also the central canal of the spinal cord which becomes the brain and neurons form axons and dendrites and synapsesStem Cells pluripotent cells of the neural plate and dorsal ectoderm which have the potential to develop into any type of cell in the nervous systemBw the third and fifth months of gestation rapid cell proliferation rapid dividing and neural migration are the dominant eventBy day 40 there are three prominent bumps on the anterior portion of the neural tube these bumps eventually form theForebrainMidbrainHindbrain of the Central Nervous SystemThere are waves of proliferation and migration in the developing CNSCell differentiation is essentially complete at birth axons and dendrites must get to their appropriate targets and make functional synaptic connectionsProblems with any phase of development can lead to significant abnormalities in the CNSEg Craniorachischisiscomplete failure of the closure of the neural tube CNS appears as a groove in the top of the head and bodythBy 7 Monthmost neurons must have migrated and have differentiated into their final formsSynaptogenesis the formation of new synapses More neurons are produced than needed in the adult brain and therefore apoptosis is normal however the trigger for this is unknownDendritic Branching the branching of dendrites which can result in increased synapses This is a slow process but eventually the dendrites form spines where the synapses occur 1
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