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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Lecture 2 Cerebral Cortex - not smooth unlike in other species => evolutionary pressure to fit more cells - from the top view hemispheres appear divided => input from the left side goes to the right cortex, input from the right side goes to the left cortex - hemispheres connected by corpus callosum => broad fiber pathway => fibers from left connected to analogous portions on the right across the corpus callosum Gyri: bumps in the cortex of the brain Fissures: large/deep sulci; 3 major ones  longitudinal separates the hemispheres  central sulcus/fissure separates frontal and parietal lobes  lateral/sylvian fissure separates temporal lobe - subdivided into 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal - each lobe has a primary cortex and associational cortex - primary cortex is primary receptive area => receives input for the lobe - associational cortex located near the primary cortex => computing power of the brain; processes information => higher order processing, newest in terms of evolution => in further evolved animals there’s a greater percentage of association cortex relative to primary cortex - Brodman mapped the brain => numbered => know numbers for the primary cortex of each lobe - frontal lobe: 4 & 6 are primary areas - parietal lobe: 1, 2, 3 is the primary strip - occipital lobe: 17 is primary area => primary receptive area for vision, info directly from the eyes - temporal lobe: 41 is the primary area => primary receptive area for hearing Frontal lobe: - starts at the most anterior portion and ends at the central sulcus - controls: 1. motor movement, eg move an arm => info starts in the frontal cortex - most anterior portion involved in 2. planning - inhibiting inappropriate behaviour (has to do with planning/aware of consequences) - primary area is the primary motor strip => precentral gyrus (in front of the central sulcus) - Brodman’s area 4 and 6, area where cells are located that control the muscles in the body o Stimulation of neurons directly control movement of muscles => patient’s limbs will move o Stimulating right central gyrus will cause movement on the left side of the body - within area 4 and 6 there is a specific way of organization 1 - brain sliced through the primary motor strip, cross-function - stimulation of the brain, going down the side of the brain starts with legs, then torso, hands, lips/face, throat => clear pattern - homunculus in the brain - moving towards the front, away from primary strip, goes into association cortex o higher functioning tissue in most anterior part Parietal lobe: - starts at the central sulcus and moves backward until the occipital lobe; not a very clear boundary b/w parietal and occipital lobe - primary function: 1. somatosensory input => receives info from body’s nonspecialized senses - primary area is the post-central gyrus (somatosensory strip); Brodman’s 3, 1, 2 - everything behind the strip is association cortex - somatosensory compared to the motor homunculus => very similar; stimulating at the top of the cortex, sensation in the feet, legs, then hands, face, lips, etc => stimulating the somatosensory strip results in the
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