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PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture

PSYB65 Lec05.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Semester
Fall

Description
Lec05 Outline  Sensory and motor functions and disfunction  Organization of sensory and motor structures  What happens when sensory and motor systems go wrong  Visual system  Somatosensory systems  Parkinsons disease Visual system  General organization o Retinas are divided down the center of each eye  Half fields  Temporal portion of retina o Side / outside portion  Nasal portion of retinal o Towards nose / inside portion o Anatomy of temporal and nasal is very different o Optic nerve  As it leaves retina  Part of the PNS (not really) o Optic chiasm  Nerve crosses optic tract  Part of the CNS  Left temporal portion of retina does not cross into right optic tract  Instead, left temporal portion of retina follows through to left optic tract o And vice versa for right side  Left nasal portion of retina crosses into right optic tract after the optic chiasm o Everything in the right visual field of LEFT eye  Will hit temporal portion of left eye  Continues to the same side of the brain  Will hit nasal portion of right eye  Continues to the opposite side of the brain  Behaviorally  Everything you see in your right visual field  arrives at your left cortex o Everything in the left visual field of LEFT eye  Will hit nasal portion of left eye  Continues to the opposite side of the brain  Will hit temporal portion of right eye  Continues to the same side of the brain  Behaviorally  Everything you see in your left visual field  arrives at your right cortex  Function o How we see things and how we recognize them  What happens when visual system gets damaged by a stroke or a tumor Tumors affecting visual field – anatomical analysis  Normal  Monocular blindness o Sever the optic nerve on the right eye o No vision in the right eye  Bitemporal blindness o Tumor in optic chiasm o Nasal portion of right eye in the right visual field cannot cross  Blindness o Nasal portion of left eye in the left visual field cannot cross  Blindness  Right nasal hemianopia o Tumor in temporal pathway of right eye o Right eye cannot see left visual field o Hemianopia  Defective vision in one half of the visual field  If nasal portion is defective  nasal hemianopia  Homonymous hemianopia o Severing the right optic tract o Results in deficiency processing the  Right eye’s temporal information  i.e. left visual field deficiency  Left eye’s nasal information  i.e. left visual field deficiency o Hemianopia results in left visual field deficiency for both eyes  Quadranticanopia o Severing the temporal pathway between the lateral geniculate and geniculostriate radiations  Macular sparing o Severing the nasal and temporal pathways past the geniculostriate radiations o Damage to visual cortex  damage to the opposite visual field  Stroke in right side  blind in left visual field  Not quite blind  macular sparing  Phenomenon  If damage is very small, can result in a scotoma  Scotoma  small area of damage / blindness you cannot see / caused to the occipital cortex o If it is very small  may not notice it Anatomical analysis vs functional analysis  Anatomical analysis  what was described above  Functional analysis o What kind of function does things have as we move down the system o The more central the neuron  Retina is most peripheral  Cerebral cortex  Primary areas  Association areas o What do neurons detect?  At the level of the neuron in the retina?  Capable of detecting a spot of light in a particular receptive field o Area 17 of the cortex in the occipital lobe  Primary receptive area for vision  Neurons respond to bars of light  Oriented in a particular direction  Will not respond to bars of light in a different direction o Association areas  Inferotemporal area of the occipital lobe  Responds not to light, but to complex images  E.g. hand / face  Recognition  Integration of light into images o Damage to visual cortex  damage to the opposite visual field  Stroke in right side  blind in left visual field  Not quite blind  macular sparing  Phenomenon  If damage is very small, can result in a scotoma  Scotoma  small area of damage / blindness you cannot see / caused
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