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Ted Petit (310)

PSYB65 Lec03.docx

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Ted Petit

Lec03 Outline  Brain disorders o Strokes o Infarctions o Embolisms o Tumors  Vascular supply disorders  Multiple sclerosis Vascular supply disorders  Blockages of vascular supply / blood flow  Different kinds of blockages o Cerebral vascular accidents  CVA  Something happened in blood supply of brain  Stroke o Subtle differences o Severe interruption of blood supply to brain o Ischemia  Brain is not getting enough oxygen / glucose  Usually as a result of stroke or blockage  Can also occur via carbon monoxide poisoning / heart attack o Infarct  Area of the tissue that is dead / dying  Can be caused by stroke  Slow or fast  Usually fast  The larger the artery  the larger area of brain that will be destroyed o Encephalo malacia  Blood supply loss is very slow  Occurs over years  Softening of brain tissue  Tissue slowly deteriorates  Slow gradual constriction of artery that leads to lower amounts of blood supply to critical areas of the brain  Cause of some cases of dementia o Transient ischemic attack  TIAs  Transient  temporary  Ischemia  lack of oxygen / glucose to brain  Brain does not die  temporary malfunction of brain processes  Commonly seen in migraines  Common results in vision problems  What causes the blockage? o Thrombosis  Local occlusion / blockage  Happens on the spot  E.g. blood clots o Embolism  Blockages that form elsewhere in the body, breaks off and lodges somewhere else  Different types of bursting o Cerebral hemorrhage  Massive bleeding into the brain  Inside the brain  Can be life threatening depending on which blood vessel bursts  Size / location / supply o Subdural hematoma  Space under the dura mater  Bleeding caused outside the brain  Occurring between the dura mater and the brain  Between brain and skull  No bleeding within brain itself  Creates pressure inside the brain  Treatment  Relieve pressure  Stop bleeding o Angioma  Collection or mass of blood vessels that are usually enlarged and abnormal  Born with this  Fragile  More prone to strokes / bursting  intercerebral bleeding o Aneurysm  Vascular dilation  Expanded blood vessel  Caused by  Localized problems  Elasticity  Weakening of blood vessels  pressure occurs  burst  bleeding  Leads to  Stroke  If blood vessel bursts Subdural hematoma – bleeding at the side of the brain and the skull Closed head injuries  Caused by blow to the head that does not break into the brain itself o E.g. concussion  Not a bullet wound to the head  Brain swells o Bruising the brain o Skull does not allow brain to swell  swells inwards  creates pressure on itself  Contra-coup o If it gets hit on one side, it will go smash forward and ricochet back and smash backward Effects of closed head injuries Cancer  Tumors of the brain  Tissues that grows independently of the surrounding tissue  Types of cancer o Glioma  Glial cell cancer  Helper cells  45% of brain tumors  Benign  highly malignant o Me
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