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Psychology (7,812)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Semester
Fall

Description
Their functions and how they are organized Inner structures Outer structures: membranes/meninges Blood supply of the brain Human brain:  Not smooth (unlike rats)  Not enough space in skull for a smooth brain  A lack of room to grow (not enough space) forced it to fold  Sulcus/Sulci: The "valleys" The extremely large ones are the fissures Gyrus/Gyri: The "mountains"  Sulci help separate things TOP VIEW  Left and right half seperated to two almost identical hemispheres (resembled pattern of body) by the LONGITUDINAL FISSURE (aka longitudinal sulcus)  Right hemisphere: Receives information from left hand side of body and controls it too  Left hemisphere: (aka left brain) Receives and controls right hand side of body Remember that the hemispheres are contralateral Paralysis of the left side of body: Right hand side of brain has tumor  Two hemispheres do communicate to one another, although it is buried a bit deeper in brain 3 main sulci: 1. Longitudinal Fissure - Divides left from right 2. Central Sulcus (also Central Fissure) - Divides the front and back of brain - Frontal lobe from Parietallobe - Anterior and Posterior 3. Sylvian Sulcus/Fissure (Lateral fissure) - Separates the Temporal Lobe The corpus callosum: Connects the two hemispheres Each part of Right Hemisphere is connected to the adjacent part of the Left Hemisphere (I.e. a frontal fiber from R connects to a frontal fiber from the L) Allows for quicker transfer of information 4 Lobes of cerebral cortex:  Technically 4 on each side  Each lobe has ONE main primary function  Each has two types of tissue (two kinds of cortex)  Primary cortex: performs some basic input or output function. It is the area that is responsible input or output of that lobe. Each lobe has a primary area: Primary Receptive Areas for example. This would be the older part. Present in almost all animals (snakes and frogs: all primary cortex)  Associational Cortex: Higher order functions. Does the actual thinking and complex activity. Poetry, music, philosophy. More recently evolved. Other animals lack this. The higher percentage of associational cortex, the more evolved/advanced an organism is. (humans have a lot of ass. cortex 1. Frontal 2. Parietal 3. Occipital 4. Temporal Brodmann  Mapped the brain by putting different numbers on all of the parts  Pinpoint specific regions of the brain  17 - Whenever you say Area 17, people know what you are talking about - occipital cortex - primary receptive area for vision  4 and 6 - primary motor output of the brain - the primary cortex of the frontal lobe - Near the central sulcus - AKA: The Precentral gyrus  3, 1, and 2 - primary somatosensory strip - primary cortex of the parietal lobe - postcentral gyrus  41 - Dorsal posterior portion of the temporal lobe - Primary receptive areas for audition/hearing Top is a side view Bottom is a mid saggital view - middle section of the brain - looking at brain from top Frontal Lobe: Begins in the anterior portion and goes up to the Central Sulcus Primary function: Motor control and motor movement (Muscle Movement) (Allows walking, typing, eye blinking) Planning - of both movements and life overall Inhibition of inappropriate behaviours (delay of gratification) Associational cortex: Long-term planning. E.g. going to university in order to get a good job and get lots of money Primary Cortex: gets the words out of our mouth and gets us moving. It has to start here Precentral gryus: 4 and 6: Primary area for the motor cortex (motor strip) The rest of the frontal lobe is associational cortex (I want to get to med school, this is how I am going to do it) Motor homunculus: Parietal Lobe From the central sulcus to the occipital lobe Primary function: Receive information from the nonspecialized senses Receive information from somatosensory senses (senses from the body) E.g. whether foot is going to sleep, hand is hot Associational Cortex: Everything other than postcentral Very complex bodily sensations Primary Cortex: Immediately next to central sulcus Postcentral gyrus: somatosensory Sensory homunculus Occipital lobe Posterior portion of brain (no clear landmarks) Just behind temporal and parietal Primary function: Vision; receiving information from the eyes Primary cortex: Area 17 Associational cortex: very important, used to distinguish whose face it is also important for object recognition Higher order vision - seeing the object and understanding it and its use Understanding the meaning of the objects Temporal Lobe Just beneath the Sylvian fissure (just Ventral to it) Primary function: Audition; hearing Receiving information from the ears Specialized senses of hearing and seeing Shows in how much brain area is devoted to decoding (whole temporal and
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