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Gerald Cupchik

PSYB45: Behaviour Modification LECTURE NOTES Lecture 1 Jan 11 , 2012 What is a behaviour? Behaviours can be internal – we can be enacting behaviour that no one else can see (examples are in slide 2). Behaviours are internal or external responses to internal or external events. Looking sleepy is not a behaviour it’s an adjective – it means something different to everything else, the behavioural aspects of it would be posture, drooping eyes, yawning, moving slowly etc. Looking sleepy is subjective but yawning is objective. Similarly, planning a party is not a behaviour – it is a series of behaviours. Planning a party is a broad overview  being respectful is a trait, it does not describe behaviour therefore, “acted respectfully” is not a behaviour A trait is how someone acted in general over time (Ex. meticulous) When you see something ending in a “y” it’s not a behaviour. Covert vs. Overt behaviour  covert is on the inside, overt (outside) behaviour involves the physical body. Ex. of a covert behaviour would be thoughts, emotions, You can break overt behaviour into two categories – motor and verbal. An example of motor behaviour would be waving hello. Doing a crossword puzzle, writing a paragraph would be a a combination of verbal and motor. Volitional vs. Involitional  volitional means voluntary, heart rate increasing is involitional (automatic). What is Not a Behaviour? Traits  a personality characteristic Diagnosis  if you say someone has social phobia, social phobia is not a behaviour . The behaviour would be having a panic attack when around other people, they avoid crowds etc. An outcome of a behaviour is not a behaviour, ex. getting better grades isn’t a behaviour, studying 3 days a week would be a behaviour Behaviours don’t imply motivation or intent Modification Analysis and modification = same thing Characteristics  Defining people by behaviors (not diagnosis, traits, etc.)  Focus on overt, measureable behaviors  techniques we use work best on overt behaviours  3 main parts of behaviour modification o Involves target behaviors, analysis, and data gathering  Changing environment  Involves altering aspects of the environment to increase or decrease behaviors largely through operant methods o Environmental controls Behaviouris MIshel None of us really have personality – it’s something we just say that we have to make ourselves feel better Behaviour isn’t only a product of the environment – some behaviour is inborn Lecture 2 Jan 18 , 2012 Case Examples The first step to changing behaviour is to identify the target behaviour. So in the first case example, the target behaviour would be reduce hair pulling. For the second case example, one target behaviour would be increase exercise, and the other would be decrease emotional eating. So target behaviours are just the behaviour you want to change. You have to measure these target behaviours indirectly, so to measure Stan’s target behaviour you assess the frequency of his air pulling. Or count the number of hairs. To measure emotional eating, you can ask them to record what they eat, how frequency of how often they sit down and eat, and the amount of junk food they eat. For exercise, you can see how long she worked out for, the intensity of the work out 9ex. how many miles she ran, how many weights did she lift), or the frequency of her work outs (how often she worked out)  Frequency – how often  Duration - time, how many minutes  Magnitude = intensity, degree or size ( how many calories you ate etc.) use a scale (rate from 0- 10 on how you’re feeling today)  Latency – the time lag  the time b/w when something happens until when the behaviour happens. The time b/w the antecedent and the behaviour. If your target is to get out of bed when the goes off, you can measure the time b/w when the alarm goes off and when you actually get out of bed.  Quality: how good you’re doing compared to a standard ex. grades  Trials-to-criterion: how many times (trials did you need) till you achieved the target behaviour  Percentage – how many times it occurred / how many times it could have occurred x 100 Functional Assessment So far we’ve identified the target and collected data – the first two steps in behaviour modification. This is just a fancy term of looking at the antecedents and the consequences. We’re gonna see how our target behaviours are target behaviours. Antecedent = something that occurs before the target and is linked to it in some way. Consequence = something that happens after the behaviour. So we want to basically see what comes right before or right ater the behaviour – when you don’t do ti, you tend to make things work. We learn this by trial and error Direct Assessment Methods Literally in the moment, you’re watching someone’s behaviour as they do it. Ex. videotape them, observe them trough one way glass. A school teacher might monitor what happens right before a student gets into a fight in recess. An unstructured descriptive assessment is a naturalistic way of observing people, you don’t tell them you’re watching them, you just observe them in their naturalistic way. You don’t interfere in anyway, and you just observe their Structured descriptive assessment would be like setting up a test  se
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