LECTURE 2 – ORIGINS OF STEREOTYPES
Ayres & Siegelman (1995) – discrimination when buying a car
- Factors to think about: behavior when addressing salespeople, attire should be same, testing
the same people, ask about the same model of the car, control for age and so on.
- 4 twin testers (ideal characteristics): age, education, attractiveness, dress, script, same dealer,
and same car.
- Results: despite while males earning more money, they’re actually offered the lowest price.
- White male -> white female -> black female -> black male (lowest to highest)
- Why ask more money from women? Why as more from blacks?
oMaybe it’s because white males know how to haggle more and that women (in general)
less assertive in haggling? (My guess)
oStereotype that blacks make less money so when they dress properly, salespeople
believe they have more money? (my guess)
oStereotype that women do not know much about cars
oWomen tend to be more agreeable
oMight be an association with race and education
oMight be that black males are getting a worse deal from white salespeople
oStudies show that whoever makes the offer first have the better advantage in
paying/earning the price they ask for.
Why does discrimination exist? Why do stereotype exist? (Movie – True colors)
- Both from Midwest, middleclass family, same softball team, they are friends. Their lives are
same in every way except their race.
- Their experiment is in St. Louis. How: send them into variety of situations.
- 1 they had to check out the city and pick out some things they need at the shopping mall.
When John (white) walks up to the counter, he gets service almost right away. When Glen
(black) walks up, he is not offered service and is even ignored by salesmen standing nearby
(this happened again and again).
- They were in the record store and the salesman followed Glen around like he’s a robber but
did not follow John.
- One day, both of them were locked outside their car. John had a lot of people trying to help
him get into the car. Glen had no help at all.
- Police car passed by them and stopped to inspect Glen but did not do anything to John.
- John was offered almost no money down but Glen was offered a 2000 down.
- Research say: salespeople think of blacks as less sophisticated people and try to have them
- Glen is told no jobs are available and is even being lectured about being lazy but John is
- When renting apartments, Glen is not given good offers
Origins of stereotypes: cognitive - Categorization: it comes from our minds our builds are layered upon a basic structure of
categorizing. Categorization is an important part of learning. If we do not categorizing
things into groups, we might be amazed by every new thing we saw.
- Why categorize?
oLearn, induction (as opposed to deduction)
oIf we get rid of stereotyping we get rid of learning
oIt occurs spontaneously
oA study: have group of people discuss a play. It was taped and pa