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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 1 (01/10/13)  1963, Martin Luther King Jr.’s speech on Slide 2 (1:25 in the lecture)  Early 1990s, Rwandan Genocide 100,000 in 99 days -The genocide even surpassed the holocaust in speed wise -Caused by tribal differences (deep hatred even with many similarities between the two tribes)  Indonesian riot due to increase in unemployment rates and downfall of economies -The biggest targets were ethnic Chinese populations  News article on Slide 5 (6:00 in the lecture) -Example of Symbolic Racism Symbolic Racism: is a theorized set of beliefs in which the subject covertly or unconsciously views an entire race as symbolized by an abstract group with certain negative attributes rather than as a collection of specific individuals. This dehumanizes the entire group as a whole, without being racist in a classical sense towards the individuals within that group  The Hunger Games (8:00 in the lecture)  Thought that racism was gone with the first Black president (Barack Obama) -Didn’t disappear, but it might’ve got better  Clip of a Racism is NOT over (11:35 In the lecture)  14:00 to 40:00 in the lecture is about the course and course goals  40:30 in the lecture is about the prof  50:00 is a clip of Dave Chappelle  When is something prejudice? Content -What was said? -How was it said? -Legitimate generalization? Intention -Meant to harm? Conviction -Does the person truly believe what he/she said? Context -Power between parties  1:00:00 to 1:14:00 in the lecture is about brainstorming definitions for stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination  Stereotype: A set of attributes & traits associated with a group of people (social category)  Prejudice: Biased evaluation of a group based on the traits associated with that group  Discrimination: Negative behaviour towards someone based on their group membership  A little history…(1:14:00 in the lecture) Stereotypes as abnormal vs. Stereotypes as normal psychological process - Stereotyping is not a sickness, it is normal Explicit prejudice vs. implicit prejudice -What one claims to be may differ from how they really feel -It differs from culture to culture -Prejudice without even realizing it Perceiver’s perspective vs. Target’s perspective -How does it feel to be a target? Intergroup conflict vs. intergroup harmony -Observing what causes conflicts and what causes harmony Lecture 2 (01/24/13)  8:00 in the lecture about the highest quote for a car experiment by Ayres & Siegelman, (1995)  Study done in chago  -Results of the Quote experiment on slide 4 in the ppt -4 twin testers in the experiment -Age -Education -Attractiveness -Dress -Script -Same dealer -Same Car All these factors need to the same so there is no bias  For a good controlled experiment… -Similar/Same appearance - Similar/Same behaviours -Similar/Same contexts - Similar/Same traits (age, gender, etc) -etc…  Why would salespeople: Ask more money from women? (Assumptions) -Women don’t know much about cars -Not as smart -More agreeable Ask more money from Blacks? (Assumptions) -The dealer’s race -Racism -Black males are less educated -more white males in the job vv. Black males so the white people are going to relate more to the white customers -Anchoring  20:50 in the lecture is the movie -2 men (John and Glenn), same life, but different skin colours -Instant attention to John (White), but not for Glenn (Black) -Even black salesman didn’t come to aid for Glenn -Trailing Glenn in stores -When they were locked out of their cars, Glenn didn’t receive help, but John received help right away -Same car and same car salesman, but different price for the two -Consider blacks as less sophisticated, so salesman asks for more -Job interviews and house viewing, different services -Lecture style (Glenn) vs. Positive Conversation style (John) -Availability (John) vs. Scarcity (Glenn) -Racism clearly shown between the two men -Taxis also treat Glenn second to John  Ask yourself: Why does discrimination exist? And why do stereotypes exist? -Fear -Neighborhood race -Bias  Origin of Stereotypes: Cognitive Categorization: Sorting certain groups with certain traits that classify the group as a whole. It is part of learning. If we do not categorize we wold be amazes by what we saw , it saves us resouces and cognitive energy Example: Hassidic Jews: -black hats -black suits -beards -ringlet “sideburns” -religious If you are exposed to jews the next time you see someone dressed like them you will know who they are and what to expect The problem is generalization, when we assume everyone of is the same of a certain group Why categorize? -Infinite number of stimuli in environment -Limited capacity cognitive system -Essential part of learning -Occurs spontaneously -Removing stereotype removes learning (categorization) Stereotypes are traits (negative or positive) associated with category -Can be useful in making predictions -Are based on a “kernel of truth” -Are fast & efficient -But, they are also over-generalizations; especially when applied to an individual Groups Categorize world into in-groups & out-groups -In-group: Groups to which we belong -Out-group: Groups to which we do not belong You love your in group and hate the out group -This simplifies social world Us vs. Them -Categorizing accentuates inter-group differences -Tend to think positively of in-group, In-Group bias -Sees each other uniquely -Even minimal groups—camp! -Tend to think of out-groups as all the same, Out-Group homogeneity  Origin of Stereotypes: Environment -Chantel Dunn and Janie Creba are both innocent victims of gunplay in Toronto 1:09:00 in the lecture about the two cases -Janie Creba is more known than Chantel Dunn -Possibly due to the race of the victim Janie Creba was shopping on boxing day and was caught in the crossfire she made headline news Chantel Dunn died because she was shot in a parking lot and caught in the cross fire , it made the news but did not make the headline or front page around the world Could it be because of racism, the media coverage was extremely different The Media: -Is the Media accurately portraying reality? Or, are they creating stereotypes? Study done by Romer, Jamieson, & deCoteau (1998) -African-American are heavily presented in News stories about crime Accurate representation? Biased representation? -TV News cannot report all criminals or victims; selectively samples -Does the news emphasize one group vs. another for crime? -How often are African-Americans seen as perpetrators? or victims? -Analyzed 11:00pm newscast on 3 stations in Philadelphia for 3 months Results: -Perpetrators and victims tend to be of the same race White on white or black on black -10% Black on White vs. 18% White on Black ( FBI statistics) -Whites twice as likely to be seen as victim than perpetrator -African-Americans are actually victims 80%, but only shown 22% vs. 24% for white people -When perpetrator was Black, victim shown as White 42% vs. 10% in actuality ( black but showing a white victim) -White victims are more “newsworthy” than Black victims -White victims of Black perpetrators are especially “newsworthy” -e.g. Janie Creba vs. Chantel Dunn This is how news media is biasing reality -Crime portrayals bias our perceptions and amplify stereotypes,  We get this stereotype of the black criminal that they are trying to hurt white people but in reality it is the other way around Parental Influence: -Most 3 and 4 year olds are aware of race and show clear race preference (Clark, 1963). -How do children learn prejudice? -Being directly taught by parents? -Observing parents? -Most results are inconclusive (e.g. Aboud, 1998) -Are we missing something? Study done by Sinclair, Dunn, & Lowery, (2005) -Parents will only influence children when children identify with the parent. -80 parent-child pairs completed: -Pro-White/Anti-Black prejudice scale -Children completed parent identification scale -Preliminary results: -No correlation between Parent & Child, r= -.11 -Slide 23 on ppt for graph of the study -When you like your parents, children want to be like them -When you don’t like your parents, children do the opposite  Origin of Stereotypes: Socio-cultural & Motivational Motivational: Slide 25 on ppt for pyramid of status (Hierarchy) -Motivation to maintain positive social identity We want our groups to do well and want other groups not to do as well -Justification of status quo -Allows people to maintain positive self-views Socio-Cultural: -Reflects specific cultural values -Result from conformity -Reflect social roles groups play Cultural specific Lecture 3 (01/31/13)  The factors that maintains stereotypes is related to the origin of stereotypes  Origin of Stereotypes: Cognitive Racist for Obama article on slide 5 in the ppt Subtyping: -Re-fence stereotype-disconfirming individuals (Can dislike the group, but like certain individuals in that group) -Allows for maintenance of stereotypes & prejudice -Allows people to feel non-prejudiced Macrae, Milne, & Bodenhausen, 1994 study on slides 7 to 9 in the ppt and 18:00 in the video -Humans have developed cognitive “tools” allowing us to analyze social environment efficiently. -Stereotypes are one of these “tools”: -They allow us to forego effortful individuation -They make useful predictions -When taxed, people use stereotypes -Are stereotypes energy-saving devices? Participants performed two tasks simultaneously Task 1—Impression formation: -Name followed by 10 trait terms -Half given a stereotypic label (e.g. doctor, artist, skinhead). Half were given no label. -Half of the traits were stereotypic, half neutral Task 2—Information Monitoring: -Participants heard a 2 minute passage on Indonesia -DV: Recall of traits with appropriate targets; performance on multiple-choice test on passage. Results confirmed predictions: -Stereotypes improved recall -For stereotypic and neutral items -Improved Multiple Choice performance  The world appears not so much as it is, but as we are. Bruner & Goodman, 1947 study on slides 11 to 12 and on 28:00 in the video Coins and Disks -Children estimated various disks (Some disks were coins, some were same size disks but not coins) -People were more accurate when just disks -Less accurate when coins (Bigger than they actually are, and bigger for higher monetary valued coins) Only Coins (Rich vs. Poor) -If money is valued more, it is seen as bigger Confirmation Bias: -Stereotypes bias information in confirmatory manner -Confirming info more fully processed -Ambiguous info seen as stereotype confirming Facing Prejudice: Study by Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003 on slides 15 to 16 and at 35:00 in the video -Prejudiced white participants saw anger (stereotyped behavior) appear more quickly on the face of Blacks -Stereotypes can affect on-line perception Self-Fulfilling Prophecies -Can the way we act towards out-groups create the very behavior we expect? Study by Word, Zanna, & Cooper, 1974 on slides 18 to 19 and at 45:00 in the video Can one person’s attitudes and expectations induce another person to act in a way that confirms his/her expectations? -Pygmalion in the Classroom (Rosenthal, 1971) -Would a student do well if the teacher expects them to do well? -IQ tests (fake) administered to children, and told teachers that some students to be superior in intelligence -These children did better Can Whites’ anti-black prejudice create a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in a job interview setting? -Mock Interview -Interviews actors (Black or White) -Scripted Do White interviewers treat Black candidates differently? -Sat further away -Length was shorter -Less eye contact -More speech dis-fluency -Less warmth and hospitable Would White candidates treated like Blacks perform more poorly? -Same as black candidates  Maintenance of Stereotypes: Motivational Prejudice as Self-Image Maintenance: -People are motivated to have and maintain self-esteem; they want to feel good about the self -When threatened, people are motivated to restore their self-esteem -By acting on prejudices, people can reclaim self-esteem -Looking “down” at someone else makes you look good in comparison -Fein & Spencer, 1997Prejudice makes you feel good! -Gave people negative feedback (fake) to participants -When shown pictures of people, they put them down to feel better Additional Motivations: -Want to maintain status quo -Afraid of standing-up -Bystander apathy -Diffusion of responsibility Links: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3jZjm8xMwg&feature=r elated htt
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