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Lecture 2

PSYC12 week 2 lecture notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Week 3 PSYC12 Lecture 2 Discrimination when buying a new car. How do we study this problem? 4 twin testers (b male, b female, w male, w female): age, education, attractiveness, dress, script, same dealer, same car Ayres & Siegelman (1995). Results show that highest car quotes are given to the 4 twin testers in descending order: b male, b female, w female, w male Why would salespeople ask more money from women? Ask more money from blacks? Stereotypes about Women: - Because women don't know anything about cards - Women tend to be more agreeable Stereotypes about black males: - They are less educated and know less about car; easier to rip off - They are less sophisticated buyers Movie: True Colours Ask: Why does discrimination exist? Why do stereotypes exist? - Whites receive cheaper car prices, better service, more housing opportunities, and more job opportunities than blacks Originals of Prejudice Categorization - Hassidic Jews -- Black hats, black suits, beards, ringlet "sideburns", and religious -- if you know what they look like, you will probably think that next time you see someone with these characteristics, you would presume them to be Hassidic Jews -- Categorization makes remembering things easier Why Categorize? - We know what to expect from all members of that category - Infinite number of stimuli in environment - Limited capacity cognitive system - Essential part of learning - Induction; humans like to make inferences of things; part of learning - If we get rid of stereotyping, we get rid of learning - It occurs spontaneously. It pops in your head without effort or intention Categorization & stereotypes - Stereotypes are traits associated with category - Can be useful in making predictions. - Thus, they may be based on a "kernel" of truth - They are fast and efficient - But, they are also over-generalizations; especially when applied to an individual Groups - Categorize world into in-groups & out-groups -- In-group: groups to which we belong (Torontonian, Canadian, student at UofT) -- Out-group: groups to which we do not belong (Caucasian, female, Christian) --- Simplifies social world >>> Us vs. Them - Categorizing accentuates inter-group differences 1 Week 3 PSYC12 -- Even though some groups are very minor, people tend to put a strong divide between them - Tend to think positively of in-group, IG bias -- Even minimal groups - e.g., camp -- In some sense, our groups are an extension of us. If we want to feel good about ourselves, we need to feel good about our in-groups as well - Tend to think of out-group as all the same, OG homogeneity -- We tend to think of in-group as having unique characteristics and personalities, but out-groups are all the same Origin of Stereotypes: environmental The Media - Is the media accurately portraying reality? Or, are they creating stereotypes? Romer, Jamieso
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