18 January 2013
Stan has a diagnosis of trichotillomania. He is seeking help to stop pulling out his eyelashes and the hair
on his head. Anxiety disorder where you pull out your hair, could be like OCD.
Mya would like to lose weight. She has difficulty with emotional eating and with getting the motivation
to exercise. Someone that eats instead of in hunger but when they are stressed out, happy sad etc.
These are close to Target behaviour, because it is something that a dead man can’t do.
Target Behaviour: The first thing we do is defining the behaviour we want to change, this is a target
For Mya losing weight isn’t a target behaviour, it is the end result. A target behaviour would be increase
With Stan you want to decrease hair pulling and with Mya you want to decrease emotional eating.
A lot of people want end results but they don’t put a lot of thought into their target behaviour. You need
to think of what are the behaviours that is going to help you achieve your goal.
How would you measure these behaviours: you would just count the amount of times you did it during
the day. This is referred to as the frequency. You can also count the number of hairs. To measure
emotional eating, you can record what you eat, how frequently you eat something, the magnitude or
how often you eat junk food. To measure exercise you would measure how many times she worked out,
you can look at how long she worked out (time and frequency). There are multiple ways of measuring
these behaviours and that is the key of changing your behaviour.
How to Measure Behaviour
- Frequency; how often
- Duration; how long (time)
- Magnitude; intensity degree or size (scale, 0-9 scale with 0 being not depressed, 9 being super
- Latency; there is a time lag, the time between the antecede and the behaviour (ex. How long it
takes before your alarm goes off before you get out of bed)
- Quality; how good you’re doing something compared to a standard
- Trials-to-criteria; how many trials did you did before you accomplish the behaviour
- Percentage; how many times the behaviour occurred out of how many times it could have
occurred Data Sheet
- Before you do anything you must measure the subject, you want to make a treatment plan, you
want to be able to see if there is any change at the end result.
- Collecting data makes us make hypothesis to make goals and see what is affecting the behaviour
- Yes or no, is a frequency. Time is a duration, Level is a magnitude or intensity.
- Identifying the connections between target behavioru and its antecedents and consequences.
- Antecedent is something that occurs before the target behaviour
- Consequence is something that occurs are the target behaviour
- 1. Define Behaviour
- 2. Identify Antecedents
- 3. Identify Consequences
- How do you identify these components? You ask them questions, interview them, get them to
self monitor, ask them to make a list of things, and observe them.
Direct Assessment Methods
- Observer measures variables through observation.
- Unstructured descriptive assessment. It is a naturalistic way of watching people, you don’t let
people tell you are observing them, but you record data.
- Structures descriptive assessment. You might do a test to monitor this. If you want to test free
throws you would set up a test and just observe the subject.
- If we wanted to do a structure assessment of Stan; we might try to stress out Stan, we might
think that work stress him out so we might give him a work task to do.
- If we wanted to do a unstructured assessment of Stan; we just observe him at work, have him
videotaped at work etc.
- If we wanted to do a structure assessment of Mya; you stress her out, put her in a gym where
she has an opportunity to work out and see if she does it.
- If you want to do a unstructured assessment of Mya; we observe her at the gym etc
- People perform more socially desirably if they know they are being watched. By doing a test you
might not also see the real behaviour, you are getting an artificial behaviour. It may also be
inconvenient because you have to follow that person around all day.
- Continuous; you are continuously watching the subject, and recording everything they do. - Interval; instead of watching all the time, you can observe and record every hour, every 10