PSYC12 Lecture # 6: Experiencing Prejudice WINTER 2013
Relevant Textbook: Chapter 6
The Target’s Perspective
A Model of Stigma
The Self-Protective Properties of Stigma
Negative Consequences of Stigma Defenses
Movie Time (if Time Permits)
What’s it like to be a target?
Opened with a film clip on the preference of dolls – is it a matter of self-esteem or is it a matter
Product of Self Esteem vs. Product of Familiarity?
Evidence like this shows that it is important to research the perspective of those who are
Change of Perspective
Hate motivated crime against gay people – Case of Matthew Shepard
Wyoming -> two men were looking for a fight, went to a gay bar, lured Matthew Sheppard and
beat up to death
Wyoming laws have now changed to include sexual orientation in anti-hate crime stories
The Laramie Project
Let’s look at the target’s point of view
We have look at the perspective of perceiver’s point of view (how do stereotypes emerge, how
are stereotypes maintained, who is most likely to be prejudiced, how has prejudice changed
None of these questions examine the experiences of those who face prejudice
Lion’s story will never be told as long as the hunter is the one telling the story
Need to know what’s it like to be on the receiving end of things
Stigma – Definition by Goffman
Possession of a trait/characteristics that is devalued by society
Stigmatized have “spoiled identity” – less positive, other
Are discriminated against – main hallmark of stigma
Types of Stigma (Goffman, 1963)
o Abominations of body (overweight, obese, facial deformities, congenital flaws,
constant sweating, short, stuttering)
o Blemishes of character (promiscuous, dementia, anorexia)
o Tribal markers (race, gender, religion, creed)
I Clicker Question: Aged 73 – what kind of stigma is it? Could be tribal marker, abomination of
body, and even blemishes of character
Are Males the New Targets of Stigma?
Can men be victims based on their gender?
News article – men claim discrimination at work
o Affirmative action – is like reverse discrimination
o I’m not being selected because I am a man
A Model of Stigma Reactions
Major & O’Brien, 2005 PSYC12 Lecture # 6: Experiencing Prejudice WINTER 2013
o There are three things that impact whether or not a person makes a identity threat
Collective representations – context, where are you?
Situational cues - # of people, majority or minority?
Personal characteristics – stigma conscious? Self esteem? Personality?
o Identity Threat Appraisal
o Non volitional responses (Involuntary) vs. Volitional responses (Voluntary)
Involuntary – stress, racing thoughts
Voluntary – things you can do to control the situation, cognitive strategy to
help you cope
o Outcomes = Stress Reponses + Coping Strategy
Failing Test, Making a Friend
Major & O’Brien, 2005
o Meta-stereotype – your knowledge of stereotypes about yourself?
Situational Cues: Cues communicating stigma relevance
Personal: Individual Differences in Perception & Appraisal
Threat Appraisal: Is Stigma Relevant? Am I threatened?
Involuntary Responses: Anxiety, Disruption, Vigilance
Voluntary Response: Coping with Threat, Blaming Discrimination, Limit Social Comparisons,
Outcomes: Self-Esteem, Performance, Health
How do Muslims cope at the airport?
Case Study: Inzlicht noticed a visibly Muslim man not comfortable at the airport on a flight to
o Collective Representations
o Situational Cues: islamophobic place
o Personal Characteristics
o Non-volitional responses - stressed
o Volitional response – stood straight to cope
o Possible Outcomes: Scared, Worried, Nervous, Stress
o Moderating Factors you can cope, reappraise the situation!
Stigma’s Self-Protective Properties
Anatomy of Prejudice
Teacher facilitates a learning simulation of prejudice based on brown eyes vs. blue eyes
Blue Eyes are the better people in the room
Blue eyes got 5 minutes more recess, blue eyes put collars on black
Felt hopeless, felt powerless,
Stigma & Self Esteem
Stigmatized are disadva