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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 WINTER 2013 LECTURE # 9: AGEISM & SEXISM Ageism  Definition: Stereotypes, prejudice, & discrimination based on age  Although largely applied to older adults it can also apply to the young – JUVENILE AGEISM  Importance of studying elderly – elderly population will double by 2030  Unlike other prejudices, elderly are out-group that will one day become in group  What form does ageism take? o Patronizing language – OVERACCOMODATION, BABY TALK o Patronizing behavior – INFANTILZATION, CONDESCENDING TREATMENT, ASSUMPTION OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL DETERIOATION  We are more ok with expressing our stereotypes about elderly people and the obese Perdue & Gurtman, 1990  Ageism: o Do people have negative associations with elderly? o If so, are these associations implicit/automatic? o Answer: People do have stereotypes – both positive and negative but what about at the level of implicit noticing.  Method: o Evaluative priming task o “Old” vs. “Young” subliminally primed (55 ms) o Positive vs. Negative traits presented after prime o DV: RT to words (faster RT = stronger association)  Graph:  Results: o Negative Words are more associated with OLD than with young o Positive Words are more associated with YOUNG than with old  Critiques o Is this out-group bias? Young people like themselves more probably, no so much out group derogation o What does this have to do with people? Old is not generalizable from just this study at least.  I-Clicker o Which of the following are problems with the Gurtman et al. study on implicit attitude towards the elderly?  The authors did not measure explicit attitudes  The results showed in group bias  Results may not generalize to social evaluations  The authors measured implicit attitudes  The authors didn’t thank God in their acknowledgments  Origins of Ageism: o Societal Age Grading  We have grades all throughout our schooling and teach it at an early age that age differences matter! PSYC12 WINTER 2013  Societal – Young people and elderly people pay less and makes AGE salient o Dominance of Youth Culture  Businesses are especially interested in capturing the demographic and their associated income of 18-30. CAPTIVE AUDIENCE o Media - o Fear of Death –old people remind people of the eventuality of death  Defense mechanisms in place to think about the eventuality of our own death  Martens et al., 2004 o Given instinct for self-preservation, people want to deny death or reminders of death o People find elderly threatening because if they are reminders of own death o Elderly out group bias (ageism) is product of this mortality o Study Design  Presented people of photos of young and old people photos  After, had word completions – death related ways (skull, grave etc.)  Increased death word completions = more likely to associate elderly with death  Ageist Self Stereotypes o Self-stereotype: Internalization of societal beliefs about the traits associated with one’s group o Development of ageist self-stereotypes  UBIQUTIOUS  OPERATE BELOW AWARENESS, IMPLICIT, UNCONCIOUS  INTERNALIZE BELIEFS WHEN PEOPLE BECOME OLDER  Effects of Ageist Self Stereotypes (Levy 2003, Levy 2009) o Longitudinal studies show that people (18-49 years) with positive self perceptions of aging  Reported better health up to 20-40 years later  Fewer heart attacks, strokes, angina, etc.  Lived 7.5 years longer  Low cholesterol and exercise improve lifespan by 4 years o Implications  Mental & physical deterioration is not inevitable, can be self-fulfilling  People may not be aware of effects of self stereotypes o Self Fulfilling Prophecy & “Senior Moment” – Act of believing it may result in it coming through o Professor Inzlicht believes this study is AMAZING! o Cultivate a positive view for the elderly because that is going to be you one day!  If you think they are good, the
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