Psychology of Prejudice
7th March 2013
Stereotype Threat 1
Movie : Testing and Intelligence
- Can test really tell us how smart we are and what goes on in our mind? Or are there
- Psychology of assessment, measuring peoples goals and how they differ
- Psychometric test their intelligence
- Cognitive tests measure aspects of your intellectual ability
- Then there are personality tests, which tests your personality, likes and dislikes.
- For all these tests the bottom line is to get responses bases on real life experiences
- Earliest test was 2200 BC by the Emperor
- Another great assessment was Alfred Benai which was used to separate retarded children from
normal ones. This was a biased system. He believed that test results were supposed to identity
those areas where children needed help
- However it was used to assess children’s performance.
- Test results were used to measure age. Certain intelligence were paired with age
- During the World War they had to be tested for intelligence
- There was a growing idea that intelligence testing was used to differentiate individuals,
especially in social situations.
- IQ- was used to measure mental age and chronological age.
- Many people thought that intelligence test can measure inequality and our intelligence that was
- Wexler, invented a intelligence scale where individuals were asked arrange pictures in an order
that made sense.
- These types of test are used world wide by psychologists.
- Test scores should be consistent and reliable, in order for it to be valid it needs to measure what
its supposed to measure
- The tests not only have to be assessed but you have to assess how they are used or misused
- Think about when a test score identifies a student
- Often times gender, race and class affects people’s ability to score well on a test
- Stereotype threat is the idea that our social identity can influence our test scores
- There is a stereotype that women are unable to perform well in math.
- It says that men and women experience taking math test differently
- For instance when women and men were both given a difficult problem it was found that
women were more stressed out. - At Yale a psychologist studies practical intelligence, person with high spatial ability is better at
this than person with low spatial ability
- There is very little correlation between practical and academic intelligence, as to say that one
may have on more than the other.
- What people say is that what they learn in college isn’t important but it is what they pick up on
- The controversies over intelligence are bound to continue. What we do know is that there are
individual difference that affect us.
Group difference in measurement of Intellectual Performances
- Major and O’Brien, 2005
- This is a model of stigma and reaction to stigma
- People make decision based on whether a appraisal is a threat or not, and they do this with
volitional and involitional responses
- They may disidentify themselves with the group (Volitional)
- It may cause anxiety, arousal etc (Involitional)
Male- Female Math Performance Difference
- This data is old there is a difference favouring girls in elementary school, but once you get to
high school and college and adulthood, the data shows that males are better at math.
Black and White IQ Distribution
- This test shows that the curves largely overlap, but we also see that the IQ points is higher for
whites than blacks.
- Ask yourself why do we have this? Why is there difference in intellectual performances?
- Race: Black- White IQ difference: It could possibly be genetics
- Sex: Male-Female math Difference: article that states it is because girls have math anxiety, also
could be the self fulfilling prophecy.
- SES: Rich- Poor IQ Differences: Those individuals who have a higher income are able to have
better access to higher education compare to those individuals who don’t have a high income.
- Genetic explanation
- Intelligence is highly hereditable, if you have smart parents then you are going to be smart and
your parents are going to be smar