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c12 stereotype threat notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 1: stereotype threat Latinos and blacks still trail whites in reading and mathematics at all age levels. Hasn’t hcanged much since 1990 These gaps exist all around the world Gender diff also exist Not diminised since 1994 despite women being better overall students . women stil a minority in feilds The real problem that holds marginalized groups back is the stereotype threat, the idea that they will be viewed as lower by hte others because of expectation Stereotype threat: situational predicament in which individuals are at risk, ofconfirming negative stereotypes aout their group This fear can ultimately scare them into losing cognitive ability and therefor confirming the stereotype Very popular phenomenon, makes ppl uncomfortable and stems away from nature vs nurture debate saying that just the situation can have a greter effect than either The existence and awareness of these stereotype creates a problem for reaching potential Ch.2 role of situational cues in signaling and maintaining stereotype threat Drawing from social identity throy,stereotype threat begins with the assumption that each person has multiple social identities. Vigilance process initatiated when an identity’s value in a setting becomes more salient During vigilance phase: ppl’s attention is directed to other situational cues in the environment to determine whether the identity may be a lability . vigilance can relax if the environmental cues disconfirm social identity as being a source of stgma. Vigilance can increase if environmental cues confrm that social identity will result in negative evaluation A gender unbalanced video, women remember more were more vigilant had higher heart beat and were less likely to feel apart of the group Pl have diff thresholds of identity threat Certan cues may be less threatening to people less invested in the particular domain Ppl who are more close with their steretyoed social group are more vulnerable to stereotype threat effect 2 cues reliably produce stereotype threat to negatively stereotype gourps for intellectual abilities: diagnosticity of a test (validity of testing intellectual abilities) and the relevance of a stereotype to people’s performance Researchers can often refer to the stereotype by subtly mentioning it, or by telling the participants that they will be avaluated on things and for fture potential this intensifies the threat When tests are notoriously imp. It induces stereotype threat The way the room is set up or the type of ppl in the room significantly affects the stereotyped person All types of ppl can be affected by identity threating cues and experience the cognitive, behavioural and emotional disrutions of stereotype threat Other peoples behaviorus and media, subtle situational cues (sexist behaviour ie.) can cause the stereotype threat process and interfere with performance aspirations and cognitive processes of stigmatized individuals Situational cues tied to one’s outcomes orr interpersonal treatments are likely to be those that have the most impa ct onppl’s psychological and hevaioural outcomes - Stereotype threat concerns, belonging concern, authenticity concerns, trust and fairness concerns, discrimination and devaluation concerns, marginalization/ghettoizaton/social exclusion concerns Cues can speack to many different concerns at once By changing situational cues in an environment, one mght dampen the identity threat there is an implication of stereotype threat theory - Dentity safe setting scontain identity affirming cures which signal people that their identity is welcomed and respected - Dentity safe cues very in explicitness. Focus on alleviating threat signalled by diagnosticity and stereotype relevance - Ex. Say that the test doesn’t accurately predict academic ablity, not call it a test, shows no racial difference/gender differences - The manner this is done influences ppls perception of threat or safety and effectiveness varies by social group - Tests that explicitly rebuttal notion that there is racial difference n the evaluation show the most reduction in stereotype threat. This is because these thoughts are pretty much automatic - In women same result as above. Explicit more effective than subtle - In minority student, subtle reductions were more effective than explicit ones. (calling it a puzzle rather than a test) - Can introduce cues to neutralize the threatening ones. - Critical mass: # of idenetity matess that it takes for individuals to feel they will not be jjudged according to their social identity o Potent safe cue o Also sharing group membership with key individuals in settings also decreases threat - Most successful focus on disconforming stigmatized individuals’ social identity concerns o May be worried about nto fitting in as well o Even brief exposure to cues that directly target people’s social identity concerns by decoupling their identity from their negative experiences in a setting protect them of the effects of stereotype threat One cue can shape the interpretation of another (ex. Not a lot of diversity n the brochure of a company, but has diversity policy. So the policy cue counteracts the other one and vice versa Ch.3 an integration of processes that underlie stereotype threat Anxiety and negative stereotype activation are overly simplistic explanations for stereotype threat Also, stereotypes are nt just activated and automatically induce consistent behaviour Involves both cognitive and affective components and engages both automatic and controlled processes Stereotype threat: characterizes a concern that one might inadvertently confirm an unwanted belief about one’s group. Motiv ation to avoid enacting any behaviour that might be seen as stereotypical Preference changes as well as the way one processes info at automatic and controlled levels Not always conscious threat . unconscious and result in opposite of persona’s goals and intentions First, situratons that cue stereotype threat actvate a schema of that stereotype Logical inconsistency s what actually soncsitutes stereotype threat. Cues an imbalance between the stereotype group, domain of ability and concept of self The subtle way the task is described has a great ability to acti vate stereotypes Logical inconsistency isn’t what humans can deal with, so self-doubt arises and the association between concept of self and the domain is changed (blacks are bad at math, i am black but good at math. So doubt arises, maybe i am not good at math) Doubt disrupts cognitive abilities and desire to disrove stereotype may result in o verinterpresting certain signs as failure Larger ERN when ver motivated to avoid mistkess or when being evaluated Women expecting to tke difficult math test used more anxiety related words as opposed to what they were more likely experiencing (more vigilant to signs of threat and internal experience) Automatic effects and more controlled processes are activated by cognitive inconsistency A core tenet of stereotype threat (stt) is that it increases motivation to disconfrm stereotype (st). This may be unconscious This may be good sometimes, but performance will be impaired when the task is more cognitively challenging when one’s dominant response is activated. Harkins saccade task revelaved that women who were told it was related to math and visuospatial abilities were more like to saccade to the flashing light instead of the cue they were supposed to look at, unable to control reflex—this explained by the threat increasing prepotent response pattern. - But women were also faster to correct, motivation to do well. This is more controlled mode of processing - Effected automatic and controlled responses to disconfirm stereotype Paradox: stt cann both ncrease motivation and decrease performance Stt taces working memory capacity (inhibits irrelevant info and
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