PSYC12H3S Lecture 8
Stereotype Threat II
Stereotype Threat and Performance
Group differences are real, but:
What do they mean?
Where do they come from?
ST situational (vs. genetic vs. environmental) account of group differences in intellectual
Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2000
What type of situation evokes stereotype threat?
Method: Students take tests in groups of three
Male vs Female students taking math test
Minority (2 M vs 1 F) vs. same sex-group (3 F)
Added mixed-majority condition (1 M vs 2 F)
-The story in the animation is a typical stereotype that happens to some ppl. She has a mental
pressure that enables her to freak out and panic.
-The size of the classroom matters and the number of female and male in that give classroom
when taking a math test. The act of being minority in a given classroom can lead to think about
these types of stereotypes (women suck in math in comparison to men). If u don’t know about a
specific stereotype it is possible that it would not affect u at all.
-Study: Small room they brought male and female in a room to take a test and exchange the
number of men in a room (two men and one woman or two women and one man).
-Result: women who were outnumbered did worse than women who were not outnumbered.
-Someone being in a minority and in a stereotype setup that’s when it affects him or her.
Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2000
Proportion of in-group and out-group members in an environment can affect intellectual
Small, seemingly harmless changes can have big impact on intellectual performance
Minority environments are only harmful to stigmatized groups operating in stereotyped
-U can be suddenly reminded about a stereotype by look at posters or paying attention what is
around u and therefore can activate it non-conscious.
-Small things make a difference.
-Question: Teacher had a friend that noticed he is the only South Asian person in his department
of history. What will happen to my friend Asohan? He won’t show any ill effects.
Stone et al., 1999
Stereotype: Whites have less athletic ability than Blacks Will Whites underperform in mini-golf when stereotype active?
Black vs White
Natural Ability vs Control
DV: Number of strokes (lower strokes = better performance)
-Study: brought black n white ppl in a lab. They described as golf as being as natural ability and
suppose that whites lack natural ability.
-Result: Natural ability: Black students complete the task in fewer stokes.
-There is a stereotype that women r not good driver. Men however get more accident based on
-A group brought women into a lab that had real car; instead over going to the road they had
virtual screen like a game. They measured how fast they going n so on. There were three
pedestrians walked by now the question is do they hit them? Women who r reminded of the
stereotype 60% hit the pedestrians and 25% didn’t hit the ppl when they r not reminded.
-A stereotype about gay men is secretly into young children. A study is done they brought
students who said they r gay and made them interact with the children. The experimenter looked
at body language of the gay men; they found that they were cold and not fluent when speaking.
Result: they said maybe they have anxiety about their stereotype.
-Group of France ask the affect of poor and rich ppl. They did IQ test on those type of ppl. They
also asked the status economically their parents stand. The reminded of ur poverty can affect ur
-Do female underperform on the negotiating table bc of ST? Women tend not to be as good
negotiators compare to men. Generally men over perform than women bc the stereotype is
-Question: Which of the following groups is probably not a target of stereotype threat? Men
How do Stereotypes Threaten?
Proximal mechanism: ST temporarily impairs working memory
-Mechanism that most touches the temporarily impairs working memory (hold or manipulates)
(Look at figure). This is thought to mostly affect the stereotypes.
Schmader & Johns, 2003
Hypothesis: ST lowers test performance because it reduces WM capacity
WM: ability to stay focused and inhibit unwanted thoughts
WM task: dual processing task
Shown word list; asked to recall words later, in order
Females took math test
Stereotype activated (threat) vs. non-activated (non-threat)
DV: Recall for words in WM task, math test performance
-Study: They gave ppl working memory task. U can be shown lists of words and r asked to
remember it. The female took the math test whether ST is activated or not. Then they gave them
working memory test and also that was introduced to men.
Schmader & Johns, 2003 -Result: ST –B = -42* - Math test performance; the women did worse when they were reminded
by the stereotype. ST- -52** - working memory capacity; they were able to do well. Then the
memory capacity- B= 58** - Math test performance; the memory predicted the score of the math
test. Most importantly no relationships between ST- B=-12,ns- Math test; bc the working memory
was active. In other words the reason for ST to take affect in the math test performance is the
diminishment of the working memory.
How do Stereotypes Threaten?
Acute stress response
Confirming negative stereotype is unnerving
Vigilance to cues in the environment, internal states, and performance
Pushing away negative thoughts and feelings
Distraction (proximal mediator)
People less capable of maintaining attention on central task
-Increase heart rates, more sweating.. etc.
-Stereotype judge u or ur behavior u start to look at cues to see what’s around u.
-U r extra sensitive to frustration, u tell urself u r not good at this. Once ur u realize u r thinking of
the stereotype u will start to suppress. That in itself requires energy and many control which it is
Integrated Process Model of ST
-Question: How would stereotype threat lead a femal