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PSYC12H3 (387)


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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 TEXTBOOK NOTESCHAPTER 1Groups are the basic building blocks of societyWhen groups are formed they tend to form closer ties to members of their own group and they tend to be suspicious and rejecting of members of other groups Prejudice form the basis for negative feelings about other groupsStereotypes believing that certain characteristics are associated with other groups because the outgroup are perceived to be antithetical to the ingroups welfare or values Logical analysis of intergroup hostility suggests that there is no rational basis for disliking others simply because they belong to another group Lippmann believed that stereotype is the tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar terms as having similar attributes based on a common feature shared by each We pay attention to stereotype consistent info and disregard info that is inconsistent with our stereotypes Allport defined stereotype as an exaggerated belief associated with a category Stereotypes is any generalization about a group whether an observer believes it is justified or not Schemas are broader cognitive structures that contain our knowledge of a stimulus our expectations for the motives or behaviour of the stimulus and our feelings toward the stimulus Cultural stereotype describes shared or communitywide patterns of beliefsIndividual stereotype describes the beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a groupOnes cultural stereotype about a group may not be the same as ones individual stereotype about the groupStereotype is similar to attitude general evaluation of some objectAttitudes comprise of affect behaviour and cognition Discrimination any negative behaviour directed toward an individual based on their membership in a group Prejudice individual has a negative evaluation of another stimulus Can be felt or expressed May be directed at a group or an individual because he is apart of that group Best predicator of negative outgroup prejudice is not negative feelings about the outgroup but rather a lack of positive emotionsMore obvious form of P are more likely to be based on strong negative emotions whereas more subtle types of P may be based on an absence of positive feelings about the outgroup Selfcategorization theory people view themselves as a member of a social category or group race national religious group Intergroup interactions will make particular group categorizations depending on the nature of the group interaction Enhance the perception of the outgroup as homogenous Appraisal set of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion Emotion is triggered by an assessment of the adaptive significance and selfrelevance of the people and events in ones environmentSmith suggests that appraisals invariably involve the self because they have relevance to ones goals in some fashionSmith also says that it is too vague to say that prejudice is a positive or negative feelings about another group because our emotions reactions to other groups are quite specific Also suggests that if we are prejudiced against another group then we should react with the same negative affect to all members of the group every time we encounter them Eg Can hate the group as a whole but may like a friend of the same nationalityraceSubtyping the prejudiced individual maintains a negative affect toward the group but creates a separate category for specific members thereby allowing the perceivers stereotypes to persist in the face of what would otherwise be a stereotype disconfirming case How we react to other people doesnt depend on the type of group member they are but who a person is in what context and how we appraise that individual in terms of our goals How we react to any outgroup member depends on what selfcategory is salient for us at that moment in what context the interactions occurs and how that person helps or hinders our movement toward salient personal or group goals at that time Concepts such as affect emotion or feelings presuppose a physiological reaction therefore our ability to measure feelings or affect toward outgroups is not as precise as our measurements of peoples evaluations attitudes or beliefs about other groups Prejudice is currently measures by standardized selfreport measures that assess the endorsement of statements about the characteristics of a group feelings about the group and
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