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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 WINTER 2013 LECTURE # 6 – EXPERIENCING PREJUDICE Let’s take a look at the Target’s Point of View  We do not know the effects of prejudice and how people cope with it  The Lion’s story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the story  Matthew Sheppard – Young Gay Man went to a Gay Bar. Two men went there and looking for a fight, pretended to be gay themselves. Stigma  Possession of a trait/characteristic that is DEVALUED by society  Stigmatized have “spoiled identity”  Discriminated against Types of Stigma  Abominations of body – Cleft Palate, Obesity, Scars  Blemishes of Character – Aging, Promiscuous  Tribal Markers – Race, Age I-Clicker – What type of stigma is being aged 73?  Abominations of Body  Blemishes of Character  Tribal Markers  Age is not a Stigma ARE MALES THE NEW TARGET?  “It’s his turn: men claim discrimination at work” A MODEL OF STIGMA REACTIONS  Major & O’Brien, 2005  An Identity-Threat Model of Stigma o Collective Representations: Culture, Meta - Stereotype o Situational Cues: Cues communicating stigma relevance, type of people you are, location o Personal Characteristics: Individual differences in perception and appraisal, Stigma Conscious, Personality, Care about Domain, Identify with group or not  Identity Threat Appraisal: Is Stigma relevant? Am I threatened?  Nonvolitional Responses: Anxiety, Disruption, Vigilance  Volitional Responses: Coping with threat, blaming, discrimination, limit social comparisons, disidentification PSYC12 WINTER 2013 o Outcomes: Self-Esteem, Performance, Health Stigma & Self Esteem  Stigmatized are disadvantaged economically & interpersonally  Stigma should lead to lower self-esteem, right? o Reflected Appraisals o Self-Fulfilling Prophecies  Wrong o Stigmatized have he same or higher, SE than non-stigmatized Crocker & Major, 1989  Stigma can buffer self-esteem  Story of how I became “stigmatized” for protection  Meta-Stereotypes: Stereotypes a person has about what other’s think about them  3 Effects of Stigma: Attributional ambiguity, disidentification, & in group comparisons o Attributional Ambiguity  Blame discrimination vs. blaming self  Discount negative feedback o Disidentification  Disengage self-esteem form stereotyped domain  Value dimensions where in-group fares well o In-group comparisons  Limit comparisons to in-group members  Segregated environments  Accurate self-evaluations  Avoid painful comparisons  Example of how Muslims cope with airport screening Video  Experiment of doing discrimination between blue and brown-eyed people  Children have to be told this is wrong, but wanted them to experience prejudice Experiment, Crocker et al., 1991  Hypothesis: Stigmatized can protect self-esteem by attributing NEGATIVE feedback to prejudice  Method: Blacks to become “Friends” with “White Student” o Subjects receive positive vs. negative feedback o They are seen vs. unseen o Attributions to discrimination, self-esteem  Results – Attributions to Prejudice as a Function of Feedback and Visibility o When you receive positive feedback, you are more likely to attribute it to prejudice when seen. PSYC12
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