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Lecture 7

Lecture 7.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Lecture 7: Stereotype Threat I  Situational, something here as youa re taking a test can influence your performance (not environment like family, not genes) has to do witht hat situation, maybe what is going on in your head  Steroetype threat, prime situational explanation that can account for variance in race differences in IQ  Situational phenomenon where at risk of confirming negative sterotype of group, become anxious, aroused, can drive subsequent thoughts, behaviuors and performance Movie: Testing and Intelligence  Can IQ tests tell us how intelligent we are?  One way to answer how smart you are is by grades, accomplishments, jobs, or what you are good at, or could just give one number .. IQ  If IQ 100, average, that means half of population will have higher scores than yours  Psychologists try to put a tape measure to the mind  How people differ has been a target of measurement  Most well known test are those measuring intelligence and then those that measure your developed abilities (SAT) or those that are specific (ACT), cognitive tests  Personality tests, itnerests values and personality traits  Projected tests like Rokshark assess mental problems, inner most thoughts reflected  MMPI Minesota multiphasic personality test, hundreds of statements, assess whether characteristics of ppl normal or abnormal  For all these tests, bottom line is to gather sample of responses, predict future eprformance in real life situation  Ancient chinese empress first test (if we exclude adam and eve)  Binet, to test and go passed teachers biased performance  Binet's appraoch was quantificaiton of students performacne, great number of students were tested, norm was created based on average score, test results were mental age  Binet's test had big effect in US, vast public school system were emerging, new immigrants, militants had to be tested for intelligence and aptitude  Assesment seen as way to bring order to society, seperating those that could benefit from education from those seemed incompetent  Growing attention to alledged intellectual differnece according to race  New version Stanford-Binet intelligent test, new concept, intelligence quotiont= IQ  IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100  (10/8) x 100 = 125  Idea was that IQ wsa unchangeable, inherited intelligent  David Wextler , new test to see problem with previous, non-verbal sections for those that had language difficulties o Told to put pictures in logical sequence o Later revisions most frequently used assessments  Thousands of psychologists main work uses these tests  Test has to be valid ( measure what we are interested in) and reliable (measure same thing all the time) and make sure ppl we test same ppl when they get older  Binet's dream was that psychological assessment would replace bias methods with unbiased evaluations  If coached specifically for the test, then problem , self fulfilling prophecy if told themsevles I am a C student  Stereotype threat, Steele, standford  Testing women's performance compared to men on math exams, o Gave both men and women test o If put under stereotype threatening experience, just before take test, in this particular test not capable of discriminating mena nd women's performance (irrelevent to her perforamcen, when create this then women's performance goes up) o Sense of how this steroetype threat phenomenon can actually effect performance in person's life  Binet, intelligence is dynamic cognitive aspect  Gardner of Harvard o Seven intelligences,  One is mathematical, second is language/linguistic  If have language and logic  There is muscial intelligence, composer, think musically  Spatial intelligence, think about world closet o you in terms of spatial aspects  Kinesthetic intelligence  Two personal intelligence, interpersonal (teacher, clinicial) and intra(within person )intelligence, how you use intelligence to solve problems o Combinations among those than can cover most intelligence  Yale university, Sternberg, practical intelligence o How to find best route to get somewhere o Test for spatial ability, get between two places on map o Low correlation between practical aspect of intelligence and other intellectual ones like SAT  Look at how well standard intelligence tests predict how well someone will do for managers, doctors, business men o Very low correlation  When interveiw people highly successful, what really matters isn't what they learned in college but what they pick up on the job  Find test predicts performance on test 2x more than other tests like IQ but not correlated to IQ tests  Recorders to measure brains response , EEG recording, of certain brain waves, p300 waves, sensitive to sudden interuptions, brain of smarter person will have smarter p300 waves over time, becuase adjusts faster Group differences in Measurement of Intellectual Performance  Most contraversial aspect is IQ tests  Contraversial question, do whites/blacks differ intellectually  Reflect managing how you respond as well, more ppl said yes to white vs asian than white vs black  Know this well, we talked about volitional responses, engage in attributional ambiguity, no personal responsibility, may disidentify form a domain, may engage in ingroup comparisons at expense of engaging in outgorup comparisons  Stereotype threat may invoke distress, anxiety arousal, biological difficult to control considered nonvolitional response, outcome is poor test performacne for example Male-Female Math Performance Difference  This data is old, may look different nowadays  Difference favouring girls in elementary school (negative) but in junior high, high school, so on, favouring boys/men  Across various tests, SAT, classroom tests, meta analysis  Positive means favouring men and negaitve favouring girls  Based on IQ (standardized test learnt about, may be bias)  Important for some ppl  Notice twot hings  Main point, curves largely overlap, for most part distributions about the same but see a difference favouring whites over blacks, about 10 points, 105 for whites and 90 or so for blacks  Average, can't tell anything about anybody based on average  Question: Group differences in "intellectual performance" o Race (black - white), Sex (male - female), SES (rich-poor) o Why is it there?  Maybe its all SES, maybe black on average poorer, females on average poorer  Why do groups differ in "intellectual performance" o Not different o Tests are unfair o Different socializing environments o Genetics  Most people said environmental explanations Origins of Intelligence  Nature vs nurture Genetics  Intelligence is highly heritable, if you have smart parents likely you will be smart, if you are smart likely your siblings are smart, high correlation between parents IQ nad child's IQ  Correlation between parent and child is 0.47, correlation betweena ny parent and any other child is 0  But parent and child live in same house, could be environmental?  Twins, monozygotic twins share 100% of DNA with one another, genetic clones of one another, fraternal twins genetically are no different on avg than other siblings, shared womb, in terms of genetics 50% of genes shared  Identical twins hgihly related, more so than fratnernal  Identical twins also have more similar environment, parents address twins similarly, ppl confuse them,  Identical twins reared apart more similar than fraternal twins reared apart. Now different environments, so fact that identical reared apart are more similar than fraternal reared apart , but adoption agency try to make sure same level of wealth, same environment  If look at children adopted their IQ is more similar to biological mother than adopted mother Environment IQ of identical twins rea
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