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Lecture 6

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Michael Inzlicht

Lecture 6  Could be product of familiarity that children prefer white dolls over black dolls  Its evidence like this that it is not enough to look at prejudice from perspective of perpetrator but also victim  To illustrate point, picture of Matthew Shepard, young gay man living in Whyomi, in Oct 7 1988 found strung up to gate with shoelases with head bashed in. o Died a few days later o He was in a gay bar, shy man, and two men went there looking for a fight, looking to pick on someone, pretended to be gay and befriended him, instead of taking him home they took him to a field and pistol whiped him and tied him to fence o They didn't just hurt anybody they went to find a gay person in a gay bar to hurt and kill a gay person, = hate crime o At the time sexual orientaiton not under hate laws. , that has changed in Wyomi, because of this  Laramie project about things that occur because of this incident  Up till now we wouldn't have understood matthew sheppard's point of view  Every detail specified so far is form perspective of the perceiver  None of the stuff we talked about has addressed what is like to be victim of prejudice  Not what prejudice is but what the effects of prejudice are Stigma  Possession of a trait/characteristic that is devalued by society  Stigmatized have "spoiled identity", spoiled in sense that somehow degraded or less positive than default majority group  Main hallmark of stigma is that people discriminate people with these characteristics  Stigmas are abominations of body, blemishes of caharacter, tribal markers (race, gender,e thnicity etc.)  Abominations of body, things that make you look different, such as being obese, a congenital deformity, victims and targets their entire life, as well as people with excessive sweating and hyperhidrosis  SNM, short and male, short men stigmatized in society  Blemishes of character, dementia, mental illness, anorexia, bulimia. For example, someone who is extroverted vs shyness, people may make fun of you because you are shy.  Tribal markers (doesn't like this term cause of how itt sounds), race gender, creed, age, all of these are things that set you off as being one tribe vs another tribe.  What type of stigma is: Being aged 73? o Tribal Markers best answer, but could also say abomination of body, because as you age your body changes, become weak, slow, as well as blemishes of character, age accompanied with cognitive decline Males: The new targets?  Victims becuase of their gender?  Men complaining about discrimination but in terms of reverse descrimination, reacting to affirmitive action, preferentially chosne based on stigmatizing characteristiic, white men would not be chosen by affirmative action type of clauses  Men in class A if faced gender based discrimination and B if have not o More men than not have felt that they have been discriminated against based on gender (52-48 %)  Examples, baby sitting, retail, shovelling men only  Women's only time at the gym, what about men's only time? A Model of Stigma Reactions  Make sure you know all the elements within this model.  Psychology of what it is like to belong to a stigmatized group  Three things moderate whether someone makes an identity threat appraisal (i am being viewed as a women, muslim, i am being discriminated against)  Three things predict this is collective representations (culture, where are you, north america, middle east? Depending on where you are stereotypes are differnet, if in Jamaica and black or Canada and black, where you are makes up collective representations, ideas floating around abotu your group. Metasterotypes (stereotypes about what other people have stereotypes about them)  The other thing is Situational Cues, what is in immediate environment, what cues are out there communicating things about your identity. For example, number of people , men are outnumbered in PSYC12, says something about psychology of prejudice, consciencousness, cues in environment that provide information. Could be lighting, size of room, where you are at school or airport, grocery store  The next is personal characteristics what is the person like that making the identity threat appraisal, are they worried abotu stereotypes about group, are they high or low self esteem, do they care abotu domain they are in or not? Screen clipping taken: 07/03/2013, 12:38 PM  Once you have made identity threat appraisal, have two repsonses volitional or voluntary responses, telling yourself calm down this person not saying this or engaging in cognitive strategy to fight it, in your control, or involitional or unvoluntary resposne = heart beats faster, thoughts racing through mind, am I gong to get fired.  These two comination outcome could be failing a test or being screened for longer time at airport or making a friend, depends on stress response and coping response to that stress response How do Muslims cope at the airport?  Muslims associated with terrorism, islamophobia  If visibly muslim (hijab, beard)  Guy at airport, very scared, clearly uncomfortable in that situation, what is going on in his head? o Collective representation - in Toronto, hightened sense of terrorism and linked between muslim and terrorism, especially at airport, where events like 9/11 o Situational cues = airport now, people looking at me, going to ask me questions o Personal characteristics - seemed devout muslim, garb, marker of fiath, identified strongly with his group  These three things in combination, probably going to make identity threat appraisal  Then several responses, one is nonvolitional (starts thinking, sweating, heart beating fast), maybe some volitional response (stood very still, look down not at anyone)  Outcome, how is he feeling at that moment, probably scared, worried, health wise, nervous and stressed, discrete stress can be damaging to body, could lead to premature dead, early onset of disease  So one could argue that in this culture, that probably unhealthy for muslims to visit airport very often, becuase of threating experiences  Some people better at re-appraising situation, some people feel confident about their own self so can lead to positive or negative outcomes, just because identity threat appraisal doesn't mean negative outcome VIDEO: The eye of the storm  Raymond, blue eyed boy heard teacher say blue eyed children are smarter, more civilized, cleaner, felt better when he heard that  Mrs. Jane Elliot, third grade student will learn about prejudice and discrimination that effect states, (this town of Iowa has all white christian people)  Discussed death of Martin Luther King, teacher thought told children that this prejudice is WRONG, feel how it feels to be stepped upon  Blue eyed people are the better people in this room, smarter, made blue eyed popel sit in the front  Brown eyed people wear collars so can notice them from far  Blue eyed people get seconds  Two boys faught during recess, because of brown eyes and blue eyes  Superior children's personality changed veryd rastically  Next day changed, brown eyed people better than blue eyed people, those with blue eyes purposely forgot glasses, those with brown brought their own glasses  How easily we can become groupie, like groups we belong and dislike groups we don't belong  Idea of how it is to be the target vs the perpetrator Stigma and Self-Esteem  Stigma doesn't always lead to what is expected to lead to  Stigmatized are disadvantaged economically and interpersonally  Stigma should lower self esteem right? o Reflected appraisals , if others se
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