LECTURE 6 – EXPERIENCING PREJUDICE
- Video: study mirrors Clark and wife’s study about which doll (black or white) do kids prefer
- Although most black kids thought the white doll was the “good” doll, this may not
necessarily reflect self esteem; maybe it’s because there are more white dolls in toy stores so
kids like what they’re more familiar with
- Mathew Shepherd went to gay bar then 2 men pretended to be gay and befriended Mathew,
took him outside and pistol whipped him -> mom became activist to change law regarding
- Up until now, we wouldn’t have understood the target’s point of view. Most of the questions
we discovered only pertains to the perceiver’s point of view
- Stigma is a trait that’s devalued by society; the stigmatized is discriminated against
- Goffman’s 3 types of stigma:
o1. Abominations of body: things that make you look diff; e.g. overweight
o2. Blemishes of character: dementia, mental illness, or other personality traits; maybe
even somebody who’s extroverted can be stigmatized by people who do not like that
o3. Tribal markers: gender, race, religion; can be clothing, religious markers, skin color.
oAge can be either a tribal marker or abomination of body (becoming slow), AND
blemish of character (dementia, cognitive decline)
- Affirmative action: policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, sex, or national
origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of
employment, education, and business
Model of stigma reaction – Major & O’Brien
- IMPORTANT – NEED TO KNOW ALL ELEMENTS
- Psychology of what it’s like to be in a stigmatized group
- 3 things that determine whether somebody makes and identity threat appraisal:
Collective representations, situational cues, personal characteristics.
- Identity threat appraisal: being discriminated against right now because of tribal markers,
not as a person. Being seen different because of identity. - A, B and C can determine whether a person makes a ITA (D). After they make an ITA,
there are 2 types of responses (E,F) that determines the outcome (G)
- A – Collective representation: culture, meta-stereotype; where are you? Are you in North
America? Middle east? Depending where you are, the culture is different. E.g. being black in
a white man’s country vs. in africa. Depending on where you are, it represents collective
representation – ideas that are floating around about your group.
- B – Situational cues: what’s in the immediate environment or cues that provide information.
E.g. number of people in class on the day before exam – men being outnumbered by women
can say something about studying habits
- C – Personal characteristics: individual diff in perception & appraisal, characteristic of
person making the identity threat appraisal. Stigma-concious? High/low in self esteem?
- Once you make an identity threat appraisal, you have two responses that occur
- E – Nonvolitional responses: stress response; e.g. I’ve made an identity threat appraisal and
now my heart is beating fast and have thoughts racing thru my mind; anxiety, vigilance
- F – Volitional responses: things you can do to control the ITA such as coping response,
blaming discrimination, disidentification; e.g. telling yourself to calm down, this person is
NOT making an identity threat towards me. Something that make you cope in the situation
whether it is flight or fight.
- G – Outcomes: depends on stress response and the coping response to the stress response;
self esteem, performance, health
- Meta stereotype: stereotypes we have about other’s stereotypes; e.g. I’m a jew, I am aware
people have jewish stereotypes and I think those people are stupid.
- Identity threat model of stigma example:
oA – we are in north america where muslims are linked to terrorism.
oB – in an airport.
oC – devout muslim (marker of his faith), maybe stigma conscious, seemed like
somebody who identifies with his group
oD – people will judge me by how I look
oE – heart beats faster, sweating, thinking, worrying
oF –controlling emotion so nobody can suspect I am doing something wrong
oG – stress lead to diseases
Stigma’s self-protective properties
- Video Eye of The Storm
oMonday: normal school day
oTuesday: Teacher asked what the kids have that are different from one another – eye
color. Basically told them today brown eyed people are “better”; they get 5 min extra
recess while brown eyed kids have to stay in. Brown eyed kids do not get to use the
drinking fountain and are no