LECTURE 7 – STEREOTYPE THREAT 1
Movie – cognitive tests
- Golten: tried to identify hereditary basis of intelligence
- Bennet: 1905 measure intellectual performance of school children so teachers can separate
normal and retarded children. He believed the scores are not a measure of innate intelligence.
Key to this approach is the quantification of the students performance – he gathered a great
number of children of various ages and the average was obtained for each age group. Then
each student’s performance was compared to their age average.
- Assessing immigrants and army recruits during WWI were tested for intelligence and
aptitude. Assessment = bringing order to chaotic society, inexpensive and democratic way to
find out who can benefit from the school system or the army and who can not (or is deemed
- Eventually, leadership ability and other socially important characteristics were seen to be
figured out from intelligence testing.
- Bogus statistics were used to say immigrants and racial minorities are inferior
- Luis Turman 1916: adapted Bennet’s test for american school children (known as Stanford
Bennet Intelligence Test). He provided foundation for a new concept – Intelligence
Quotient. IQ = (Mental Age/Chronological Age) x 100.
- The SBIT became standard in psychological testing. What he differed from Bennet was that
they thought the IQ had a hereditary component
- Dependent on English was a problem in testing for babies and non-english speakers. So, a
non-verbal section was also created.
- 1 - test has to be valid. It has to measure what is intended. 2 - needs to be reliable. For it to
be valid, it needs to measure the same thing intended to be measured the same way each
time it is used. 3 – careful in standardizing. Make sure people used to measure validity and
reliability are similar to those who are going to be tested with the test.
- Competency used in a biased way: using results to tell us certain people are not capable of
doing something when they actually are. Because tests have not been developed in such way
that some people have different ways of how different people do the same job.
- Sometimes people may be specifically coached to do well in certain tests but are not able to
do well in anything else.
- Effects stereotypes and labeling can have on somebody’s performance – Stereotype threat.
- Stereotype threat: you could be judged because of who you are which can influence what
- Bennet sees intelligence as a dynamic cognitive process but some have seen it as a single
trait which can be measured by intelligence tests and can demonstrate academic, and
- Intra – having vital understanding of yourself, how to use those effectively to solve
- There is little correlation between practical and academic aspect of intelligence. - Ability to adapt to existing environment and figure out what to know in the environment and
what to do to be able to solve problems within it, to shape the environment into something
that is better suited for you
- Brain to tell intelligence: Brian of a smarter person will have a smaller P300 wave (sensitive
to sudden interactions) because their brains adjust to new inputs more readily.
Group differences in measurement of intellectual performance
- Ask yourself about group differences in “intellectual performance”
oRace: Black-White IQ difference
oSex: Male-Female math difference
oSES: Rich-Poor IQ difference
- Why are groups different?
oRace: IQ test written to reflect white culture not accessible to non-whites?
oSES: access to education to enrich knowledge limited
- Intelligence is highly heritable
- High correlation between parent IQ and child IQ
- IQ of identical twins highly related (more than fraternal). IQ of identical twins rear