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Lecture 8

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Michael Inzlicht

LECTURE 8 – STEREOTYPE THREAT 2 - Stereotype threat may help us understand group diff in tests. Some people are anxious in confronting their negative stereotypes and that influences their performance Stereotype threat and performance - What kind of situations LEAD to stereotype threat - Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev 2000: What types of situation evoke ST? oProspect of being outnumbered in a situation. So the relative representation of your group can make a difference. If the situation of you being a minority is relevant to the situation, then maybe you will be influenced by it oBut if you do not know of that stereotype, ST will not affect you oMethod: students take test in groups of three where male vs. female. Group 1 – Minority (2 M vs. 1 F). Group 2 – same sex group (3 F). Group 3 – majority (1 M vs. 2F) oResult: females in minority situations performed at less than 50% of their potential performance (in same sex situations). Males performance in minority is only a bit lower than in same sex situations - Stones et al. 1999: stereotype that whites have less athletic ability than blacks. oMethod: black vs. white, to task measures natural ability (though did not say whether whites are better or not) vs. control situation oDV: number of strokes in mini golf oResult: whites had more strokes over all (performed worse) than blacks did, especially in natural ability situation. Blacks’ performance did not really differ in either situation - Yeung & von Hippel 2008: female driving ability oFemales reminded of stereotype ―trying to see why women are perceived as worse driver‖ oIn threat situation they did about than 40% worse - Gays: experimenters looked at non-verbal behavior that exist between men and children. When stereotype activated, gay men less warm and more reserved and disfluency in speech - Poor people: answer question about SES before or after test. If answered before then is primed. Result: reminder of poverty can influence IQ performance How do stereotypes threaten? - Proximal mechanism: ST temporarily impairs working memory - Working memory: holds and manipulates information; depends on controlled attention and mental effort. The ability to stay focused and inhibit unwanted thoughts - Schmader & Johns 2003 oHypothesis: ST lowers test performance because it reduces working memory capacity oMethod: females took math test, stereotype activated vs. non activated situation. oDV: recall of words in WM task (many diff ones), and math test performance  WM task: dual processing task – show word list, ask to recall words after in order oResults proved hypothesis - How stereotypes threaten oAcute stress response: confirming negative stereotype is unnerving oMonitoring: vigilance to cues in environment, internal states, and performance oSuppression: pushing away negative thoughts and feelings oDistraction (proximal mediator): people less capable of maintaining attention on task o STs exhausting - Being at risk for stereotype confirmation (mediators): oStress response: raise anxiety, arousal, blood pressure oMonitoring: vigilance for internal and external events oSuppression: pushing away thoughts and feeling oDistraction: rumination, working memory load - Integration: mediators have one thing in common: they all require self control - The resource model of self control (Baumeister & Tierney): self control is a central resource that depletes quickly after use oSelf control is also called executive function and it has 3 components  1. Inhibition: needed in the next 2 c
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