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Lecture 10

PSYC12 Lecture 10

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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 Lec 10  How can we improve the situation? Reduce prejudice and biases? o Individual approaches o Group-based approaches o Target approaches  Pessimism in prejudice research o This class has focused on the dark side of psych – what happens when things go wrong, etc.  Stereotypes are functional and adaptive – how we learn about the world, unfortunately has negative consequences o Our world conspires against us to make us more prejudice – culture, our subgroup, our own psychology o Are automatic and implicit  People don’t want to admit to it honestly but it doesn’t mean it’s gone away – just changed form  Inevitable forms of prejudice – will we always have these prejudices o Basic message of these causes: prejudice is NOT benign, has a long term effect, etc.  What about the bright side? o Important that people are aware of own biases and world biases but also important that there are things we can do to make the world better  Individual approaches o Approaches that target any one person  Context and associations o Importance of context and associations o Having an ad of mayor + vice mayor that is a black woman o Graphic of OPP website – images associated with a white man and there is also a black man and Asian woman  Indicates they are diverse and open o Putting people of different races, genders, etc. in various contexts make them seem more human  Helps build new contexts and associations and the groups to which they belong  Can have top-down influences of media affecting us positively  Study: implicit attitudes towards black people on IAT o Wittenbrink et al., 2001  Movie and IAT – people find pro-white anti-black  Priming in context  In one study, exposed people to movie clips – one set – blacks are associated positively  Second study – negative depiction linking blacks with gangs  Results: people exposed to positive association film showed diminished IAT bias effects than those seeing negative film clips o Another study done with implicit associations – people measure bad with black, etc. BUT images primed with – black and white people with full body photos. Sometimes people looked in positive context or urban, rundown, graffiti wall context  Found that context made a difference – when blacks were shown in church made less negative associations o Usual messages received from media do make a difference – can shape the kinds of associations we have with certain groups o If putting images of people in police or as vice mayor, also showing them as role models  people with authority, power; people you might look up to one day  can also affect how blacks see their own group  Instead of just seeing pro sports black players, seeing black politicians, etc.  Study: o Shown that can get movements in IAT by having people play a videogame – takes advantage of some things we know about the body o Some research shows that some muscles are associated with certain motivational tendencies  Approach tendency  Avoidance tendency o Turns out that when we flex and extend certain muscles, these prime certain motivational state  E.g. curling arms towards self = approach, motivational  Action of the bicep = approach  Action of triceps = avoid o What if they got people to flex their biceps while looking at black people and avoid typically liked stimuli – white people o Method: had people view images and had joystick that they had to push when seeing white face and pull when seeing black face  Another condition: opposite – approach white and avoid black  Then people did IAT o Results: those people who did this videogame where approaching black faces, showed diminished pro-white bias on the IAT – was done with 300 different pictures  After an hour, showed improvement of associations  Copied study at UTSC o When people approach blacks – do not categorize/stereotype as much at level of behaviour and brain o Is a proof of concept – can change attitudes through actions, movies, certain actions  Counter-stereotypic role models o Females in science – negative stereotype that women are not good in math or hard sciences (engineering, comp sci, etc.) o Can exposure to counter-stereotypic people reduce implicit prejudice?  Looked at women’s colleges  By simply comparing women who go to a female only college vs. a co-ed college, do attitudes change as a function of being in this environment?  Dasgupta & asgari, 2004 o Hypothesized that women who go to women colleges will have less stereotyped views of women than women in co-ed colleges  Due to exposure to counter-stereotypical women, not to pre-existing differences o Method: looked at women in women’s vs. co-ed colleges  Women in math vs. non-math classes  DV: IAT  male/female and leader/supporter categorizations  Leadership is associated with male and being a supporter is usually associated with female  Results: o Influence of college environment and time spent in college on automatic beliefs about gender  Positive numbers – associating men with leadership o First year  pre-existing differences during this time. Women that self-select by going to women’s colleges are less likely to associate men with leadership than those that go to co-ed colleges o Second year  see a change that women in women’s college are showing an effect that favours women such that, women are no longer associating leadership with males  Co-ed more likely to associate male with leadership o If people took very few math and science classes, see a pre-existing difference that is there  See a pre-existing difference but the more classes that are taken with male professors and learning about famous male scientists and math stuff – larger effect of males associated with leadership  Those in women school do not show an affect at all – do not associate men with leadership  Not having men in the room allows women to feel less dominated – are more free  Conclusion o Exposure to counter-stereotypic role models can reduce stereotypical associations o BUT:  Is this due to role model or peers? May not be about professors, but peers. Likely is a little bit of both  Group-based Approaches o People believe they are more likely to be prejudiced by growing up in Toronto or going to UTSC – very diverse places  Confirmatory  Generalization o Something we strive for is that our positive interactions with various groups generalizes to the group as a whole  Contact theory – being exposed to different groups can make attitudes more positive but only to the extent that positive interactions can be generalized to the group as a whole o Need generalization or will have subtypes  Positive association with Muslim woman, it could change thoughts of Muslim women in general, if a person generalizes o Positive change also comes about with differentiations or variability of out-group members o Because the group is heterogeneous then maybe the social category becomes less useful and less meaningful to categorize people  decategorization  Only used to the extent that one can predict information BUT if a person has a variable view of the group, the category will not help anymore – becomes less meaningful  Common in-group identity o How do we have positive attitudes towards in-groups and out-groups? o From old research, know that by viewing your group as a subgroup but identifying with the super-ordinate category creates a common identity  Study: Shariff – Robber’s Cave  Set camp and divided into 2 groups. Were very competitive with each other, but when a problem was introduced to the group, needed both groups cooperation to fix the van.  Then thought of each other as the summer group altogether – identify as camp member  E.g. 9-11  After this occurred, everyone was waving American flags. People were lining up to help to donate time and money, saw lots of cooperation among Americans in terms of getting over this and figuring out what to do. Was not about race, was about being American
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