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PSYC12 Lec 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 Lec 2 Origins of Stereotypes - NOT cumulative exams 50 % text, 50% class - People have tested what happens if they go to car dealers with different race or gender and who was given the higher quotes Discrimination when buying a new car - Do this experiment by going to the field and: o Control for behaviour o Dress them the same o Control for age, etc - Match people as much as they can and get the results - 4 twin testers: age, education, attractiveness, dress, script, same dealer, same car Ayres & Siegelman (1995) - Results: o Initial price offered by the sales person: despite white males having the stereotype of having the most money, were offered the lowest price; black males were offered a higher price o Females were offered higher prices than the white male, while the black female was offered more than the white female o Black males  black females  white females  white males - Why would salespeople ask for more money from women? And from Blacks? o Stereotype that women don’t know much about cars o Stereotype that women are nicer  can take advantage of them o More it’s specific interaction – white male salesperson Movie: True Colours - Why does discrimination exist? Why do stereotypes exist? o Fear o For cities that are more “white” dominated - Does this happen in Toronto? o Tailing black people - In Toronto, it is normal for people to have hijabs whereas it would be different up north Origins of Stereotypes Categorization - Stereotyping comes from the fact that our minds are built on the basis of categorization - If we didn’t categorize objects into bins, categories, labels, we would go somewhere new and always be amazed - Hassidic Jews – wear black hats, shoes, religious, etc o If you’re exposed to a Jew and are exposed to this categorization, if you see someone dressed this way, you’ll know that they are a Jew Why do we categorize? - Infinite number of stimuli in environment - Even visual perception – since we know what tables look like, we’ll know what they are like - Problem: we generalize o We do this because we have a limited cognitive system o Can’t control every categorization - Induction: going beyond the data in front of you and making and inference - Essential part of learning o If we got rid of stereotyping, we’d get rid of learning - Occurs spontaneously – don’t need to think about it actively; it just pops in your head - Some of the earliest work was done in 1970s (taylor & someone) – group of 6 people working on a play o 3 men, 3 women discussing and took turns talking o People were shown these videos and were given a surprise memory test o Ask who said which sentences – had to name who said what o Many mistakes; had a pattern  people tended to make mistakes about what the women said among one another and what the men said among each other  Categorized between men and women  Not done actively Categorization & Stereotypes - Stereotypes: Traits associated with a category; not negative, positive – just a set of traits you think about with people - Useful in making predictions - Based on a bit of truth o E.g. Jews – are actually very religious - Fast and efficient - Stereotypes are also over-generalizations; not all Jews know everything about the Bible Cognitive - We are cognitive misers – want to save resources and energy - By using stereotypes, can use our minds for other things Groups - On a basic level: Categorize based on “me” vs “not-me” o In-groups and out-groups - In-groups: groups you belong to (female, U of T student, Filipino, Toronto-nian, etc/) - Out-groups: groups you do not belong to (male, YorkU student, etc.) o This simplifies the world; makes it easier to navigate o BUT there are many consequences Groups - Categorizing accentuates inter-group differences o Even if they are very small differences, usually put a strong divide between the 2 o Dehumanized out-groups – easier to treat them like shit - Another consequence of categorizing: thinking positively of in-group and negatively of out-group o Do this because our groups are extension of us o We want to feel good about ourselves and since groups are an extension of us, want them to be good also - Minimum group paradigm: people act very differently when given a label o E.g. at camp, when randomly categorized in different groups based on colour o Tend to like those in your group much better than those in other groups o Randomly assigned - Out-group homogeneity effect: thinking that those in out-groups are all the same or having many similar characteristics while those in in-groups are unique, special, etc. o E.g. his frat were all different while the betas are all the same and all jockeys were the same Origin of Stereotypes: Environmental - Chantel
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