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PSYC12 Lec 3.docx

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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 Lec 3 Maintenance of Stereotypes  The same things that preserve stereotypes contribute to how the start  Cognitive o Confirmation bias  We don’t see the world as it is, we see it how we see it  Motivational reasons stereotypes are maintained o Make us feel better about ourselves i-clicker would a racist have voted for Obama? a. yes b. no c. now with Obama in office, racism is dead  a racist COULD vote for Obama, despite being racist Racists for Obama  a few racist people have voted for Obama Subtyping  Don Cherry – nationalist o Against other people playing (ex. Europeans, French Canadian players) o Says because some of his best friends are French Canadian  Can do this by putting people in separate categories – subtyping o Might say his friends are a different kind of French  Ex. Racist might say Obama is kind of black – not fully  “Do the right thing” o one scene in the movie where the son of a pizza shop owner is very racist and doesn’t like black people although they are in a majority black place in NY o Black character asks who his favourite basketball player and singer are – Michael Jordan and Prince  How can he hate black people while he admires black athletes, celebrities, etc?  Store owner says, “they’re not black – they’re better than blacks”  Re-fences stereotype-disconfirming individuals o Gives a way to like certain people while still having these stereotypes  Maintains stereotypes o The people you like are not emblematic of those type of people as a whole  Allows people to feel non-prejudiced o Prejudice people would never admit being prejudice i-clicker Can applying skinhead, Pakistani and Chinese stereotypes save cognitive resources? a. yes b. no c. what you talkin about Willis? - yes, the reason I hold on to my stereotypes helps me not to think thoroughly about things Macrae, Milne & Bodenhausen, 1994 - humans have developed cognitive “tools” allowing us to analyze social environment efficiently - Stereotypes are one of these “tools” o Allow us to forego effortful individuation o Make useful predictions  Allow us to expect things and when not to and how to act o When taxed, people use stereotypes  When people are busy and thinking of other things, we can use these stereotypes - Study: o Participants are doing 2 things at once o Task 1 – impression formation  Given a name and then given 10 traits at a time – just words (e.g. Nigel – aggressive, smart, likes leather, …)  ½ participants were given a label to describe the person (Nigel – skin head) or a categorical label (Doctor, dentist, etc)  ½ of the traits were stereotypic, half neutral  ex. Mary the doctor is smart, has lots of money, likes Michael Jackson, likes pink things o while they are doing this first task, o Task 2 – information Monitoring  Heard a 2 minute passage on Indonesia – not exciting, monotone - DV: recall of traits with appropriate targets; performance on MCQ test o Based on the passage on Indonesia they just heard o E.g. What is the capital of Indonesia - Results: o Those in the stereotype group were better able to remember the stereotype- consistent things o Were also able to remember the neutral traits better in the stereotype group o Those in stereotype group had a better score on the MC performance quiz o Bottom line, stereotypes help people do more things – use less mental resources Who is this? - the way we answer who this is partly based on what we see and what kind of beliefs we carry with us - the world appears not so much as IT is, but as WE are - self-fulfilling nature of stereotypes Bruner & Goodman, 1947 - had children estimate the size of various disks - The disks were of various diameters; some big, some small - Sometimes were gray and sometimes the exact same size disk was shown but was a coin - Despite these disks being exactly the same size o E.g. penny matched with same size as gray disk - People were more or less accurate with the gray disks; when the disks were actual coins, people found them as bigger than they actually were o Also found, the bigger the value of the coin, the bigger they thought it was o A quarter was seen as much bigger than a penny - In society, we’ve given value to these objects o The more value they have, the bigger we actually see the physical size of the coin - the kinds of ideas in our head changes how we see things - Break it down to rich vs poor kids o Everyone over-estimates the size of coins and see bigger valued coins as much bigger o If the value of money is greater (ex. You are poor) you see the coin as even larger Confirmation Bias - stereotypes bias information in confirmatory manner o confirming info is more fully processed o Ambiguous info is seen as stereotype confirming - If I encounter something in my environment with what I believe nature is like, I’m more likely to notice it - E.g. photo of black man – is he smiling or angry? o Research shows if we encounter something like this and have stereotypes, will see more as an angry face than a smiling one - Study: 2 people on a park bench discussing something in a heated manner o People had to judge the nature of the fight o These fights were staged in 2 ways: sometimes 2 white people or sometimes 2 black people  Were coached in the exact same way - Results: people saw it as more aggressive, violence when the 2 people were black - Stereotypes are maintained because we think they are true – see life in a certain way Facing Prejudice Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003 - Did the same experiment as the park bench but put it in the lab - Made 3D animated faces that were almost identical – one is black and one is white o Features on black face were more afrocentric o Basically were the exact same face - Study: presented these faces one by one o They slowly start to change – go from a
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