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PSYC12 Lec 4.docx

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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 Lec 4 Midterm: Fri. Mar 1 – gym 7-9. 70 mcq - Covers lecs, Ch 1-5 and Bodenhausen and Greenwald readings Suppression - White bears famous for classic psych studies o Mental control o When people actively try not to think about something, it’s difficult and you end up thinking about it a lot more than if you don’t try to think about it  Called IRONIC SUPPRESSION EFFECT Stereotype Suppression - Stereotypes are: o efficient, o fulfill motivations and o automatic - BUT there are problems with them: o Negatively impact targets o Society has deemed stereotyping to be unsavoury - Solution: suppress stereotypes Mental Control - To understand mental control or suppression, need to understand: o Control has a feedback loop  Goal  operate  monitor  back to goal - To establish control, one needs a goal o E.g. don’t think about X - Once you have a goal, you erase all thoughts of X from your mind - Also, need a monitor - A system that detects when what you want is different from what you have. Detects when you are thinking about X o Once detected, feeds back to operating system to let it know – there is something in my mind that I want to be pushed away  Same concept as thermostat - Operating process: o Takes action to meet desired state (to prevent stereotypes) o Resource-rich o Controlled - Monitoring process: o compares current state with desired states (scans mind for stereotypes) o Resource-free o Automatic - In terms of efficiency, costs, etc, the operating process takes lots of energy and resources. Very resource intensive. If you operate and work really hard to control your mind, you eventually get tired and have less energy to engage in this process - Monitoring process: resource free – doesn’t take much energy to detect things - Once operating process is fatigued, monitoring process takes over - Suppressing stereotypes works in short-term, not long-term Macrae, Bodenhausen, Milne, & Jetten, 1994 - Hypothesis: when you ask individuals to suppress stereotypes, it works in the short term but after a while, after they have relaxed, the thing they suppress becomes hyper- accessible - Method: suppress stereotype of skinheads vs. non-suppress o Given a picture of someone that looks like a skinhead and they are told to write a “day in the life of” the person in the picture o Separate task: Lexical decision task  Shown a bunch of letter strings and asked to say if the strings are words or non-words  Idea: if they construct this prime, they will react more quickly to this word  E.g. you hear the word dentist – see a letter string of the word teeth – much faster at detecting the word  Experimenters looked at reaction time of words related to stereotype of skinheads  Shorter RT = more activation of construct o I-clicker: what does the LDT measure?  A. whether things are words or not  B. whether a construct (stereotype) is activated  C. whether people are slower to react to stereotype vs. non-stereotype words  D. whether people are violent or not  E. whether skinheads are seen more stereotypically  Answer: B - Results: those who suppressed stereotypes were faster to respond to stereotypical words related to skinheads vs. the control group o The stereotypes were hyper-accessible for the suppression group - Can lead to rebound effects  greater activation of thought than would be the task if thought was not suppressed - This affects thought and behaviour - In another version of this task, suppress skinhead stereotypes – then are told they can interact with someone the story was written about (skinhead) o Have the person go into a room with 7 chairs – one end seat had a black jacket on the seat o Results: found people sat further away from the jacket when they were in the suppression group - Critique: o Will this generalize to other groups? o Will it predict real behaviour? Modern Prejudice - Prejudice has changed! - Situation Dave Chappelle showed – people do not actually act that way; may have these stereotypes but will not say it out loud. Why has it changed? Why are people not open about it? Segregation in the US - Signs: o “we serve colored. Carry out only” o “Public swimming pool. White only” - In 1950s, there was like a caste system  blacks had different fountains, washrooms etc In Canada too? - McGill – oldest university in Canada; had a Jewish quota - Mount Royal (in MTL) also had a limit on how many Jewish people lived there - Early 1920s – there was a head tax for Chinese people to get into the country. $500 per person Modern Racism - People now do not overtly show prejudice – may be thinking it, but know it is not appropriate. Does it mean prejudice has gone away? No, but it has changed forms. Different kind of prejudice that our grandparents experienced. - Is no longer “fashionable” to be racist - There is still resistance to integration: o Affirmative action – to disproportionately exclude people from under-represented groups
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