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PSYC12- Lec 6

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Michael Inzlicht

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PSYC12- Lecture 6—Experiencing Prejudice I • Stereotyping and prej happen with the target and perceiver rxnt with eachother o Feedback from target confirms expectations of perceiver perceivers beahv confirming expectations of the target • Whats it like to be the target of prj and stereotyping = what effect does it have on motivation , expectations , self esttemm interactions • Have you always been normal?  normal = same as majority of pop at any given point o No = its like u have a brace , or funny hat o Point = remember all the points u were unique=how did it feel how did others threat u o Prob = ≠ postivie no 1 likes negative threatmet • No 1 wants be in negative evaln = that’s y ppl try to fit in witht eh majority= don’t wanna be singled out and made fun of o Esp kids o For some negative thing Is temp ( like braces) but some = permanent What’s it like to be a target? • Mirros classical study by kenet clark • theres group diff for dolls even in young kids • doesn’t this mean balck kids don’t like themselves • blakc doll = bad, whiet doll = good o black girl – this is the good doll this is the bad , and im the bad cuz it’s the black 1 • maybe u like wat ur familiar with – like mmost dolls = white , most tv shows , maybe its about familiarity and ≠ about themselves o • its ≠ enough to study prejudice by perpetrator – person doing it , but also look by victims ∆ of perspective • pic of someone named – Mathew sheppared o young gay men , living in laravey niome • he was found tied to the gate , with his shoe laces and his head bashed in o cyclist found him o mathew sheppard went to gay bar , he was shy and 2 men when there bascially looking for a fight to pig on someone – they pretended to be gay and became friends with the guy and said were gonna go home , hook up ow o they with to the field hit him with the gun o he died few days later • this was a crime motivated by hate – they went spec for gay bar to look and find and hurt a gay person o didn’t just attack anyone • hate laws in whyiomi – sexual orientation was ≠ in hate laws , getting beat up cuz ur gay wudnt count as in hate law o Mathews mom ∆d the laws • The Laramie Projectabout this incident about Mathew Let’s look at the target’s point of view • Told this this story cuz – we never wud have understood Mathews view o We studied cog part stereotype , motivated, culture preservation , prej gone underground , its modern , believing vs knowing o But all of this is talking about things from perspective of perceiver o What is it like to be person whose perceiver of outside group • Up until now, discussed perceiver’s point of view o How do stereotypes emerge? o How are stereotyped maintained? o Who is most likely to be prejudiced?- prej personality o How has prejudice ∆d over time? • None of these answer what is it like to be Mathew , what’s it like to be gay person in homophobic environment o Be Jewish in jermeny o Muslin in anti-Muslim place o New perspective –so ≠ tons of research • What are the effects of prejudice? • How do ppl cope with it? – how they deal with it • “The lion’s story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the story” o Never understand Mathews perspective if we look at the criminal o We have to see receiver’s end of things Stigma • Stigma: Evern goffman o Possession of a trait/characteristic that is devalued by society o Conveys negative social identity o Stigmatized have “spoiled identity”- spoiled as in somehow degraded , ↓ positive and ≠ same as the majority group o Sigams = characteristicmark indiv as= deviant, limited, spoiled, generally undesirable o Are discriminated against o Ppl who have the characteristics are discriminated against o Discrimination – negative behavior • Types of stigma (Goffman, 1963): o Abominations of body o Blemishes of character o Tribal markers o Lots of prej and stereotypes are based on tribal markers – race , gender • Abominations of body o things that make u look diff o being obese – u look pay attention giggle when u see obese person o clift lip- without surgery they are gonna be targets cuz of this o excessive sweating – its embarrassing – see with pit stain – u laugh to self and someone else – when u have pit stains ur embarrassed o excessive sweating and hyperhidrosis o its about the body that u have no control over o being short , cross eyed o S and M video – short and male – about short men and how they feel stigmatized • Blemishes of character o dementia from old age o anorexia , bulimia ( marry kate) o the big 5 – some ↑ desirable then others – extraverted ppl – ppl like them , they tend to be leaders dominant o way if ur painfully shy its ≠ ur fault maybe due to genetic or upbringing , but this can hurt u , ppl might make fun of u • Tribal markers o any marker : race gender, creed, age markers o all things that in a way set u off as being part of 1 tribe over another o we talked abut these in class o stigmatizing and lead to consequences later on • What type of stigma is : being aged 73? o A- abominations of body o B- Blemishes of Character o C- tribal markers  best answer tells u what group  But it could also be abomination of bod y- cuz as u age ur body ∆s u become weak , slow or blemishes of character age comes with other characters o D- age is ≠ a stigma – ≠ right Males: The new targets? • traditional victim =women o but can men claim discrimination o can they be victims cuz of their gender • article – It’s His Turn : Men Claim Discrimination At Work o idea men ↑ingly complaining about discrimination – like reverse discrimination –> I am ≠ being selective cuz I am a men • cuz of affirmative action - ppl chosen based on stigmatizing characteristic – gendered , race, ect o white men – ≠ chosen for affirmative action plans – they saying on im being discriminated against • if u a men answer this question – theres 29 men – hes just curious – press A if uve experienced gender based discrimination B if no o ↑ men then ≠ feel like thy have been discriminated against o share their experience – he wanted to babysit ↑ opportunities given to the girls then him o wsnt getting work cuz ppl didn’t wanna hire a man to do this o sisters can say go mow the lawn , shovel the snow but if isaid do laundry it wud be the end of the world o itts sexist but its unclear cuz it cud be benevolence toward won – like their weaker , they are discriminated but I dunno its unclear o retail clothing store – want women tehn me o killing insects = mens work o few years ago – womens only time at gym , y cant we have mens only gym time A model of stigma reactions • Major & O’Brien, 2005important model = wants us to know and all the elements o See what its like to belong to stigmatized group • 3 things that moderate whether someone makes identity threat appraisal  someone says oh im being discriminated against , im being looked at diff cuz of my identity • collective representations – this means culture – north America , middle east , Africa – depending where u are the stereotypes are diff like if ur black its if in Toronto, Africa o collective rep – ideas that floating around about ur group • situational cues – what things are in ur immediate envir o eg # of ppl – like 29 males and ↑ females o men’s are out#ed that says something about psychology , consciousness’s – prep for midterm = cues that are from envir • personality characteristics- determine if someone makes an identity treat appraisal - what tare the ppl like o are they worried about the stereotypes , what’s their personality , do they care about the domain there in or not • non voluntary- heart beats faster, thoughts in head about what is this person thinking • voluntary- things u can do to control identity threat appraisal – calm down this person isn’t saying this , or stop cog , leading , fighting – u have these in cntrol o these things together make an outcome • outcome : getting screamed , making new friend o cud be anything based on ur stressed response and ur coping response • Collective Representations: culture, meta-stereotype- stereotypes ppl have about other ppls stereotypes o Eg im Jewish I am aware of other stereotypes and I stereotype other stereotypes o Ppl who don’t like jews are dum blah balk • Situational Cues: Cues communicating stigma relevance o # of pl o Size of room o Where u are : school class rom , airport • Personal: Indiv differences in perception & appraisal o Wat are you like and how does that effect threat appraisal • Threat Appraisal: Is Stigma relevant? Am I threatened? • Involuntary responses: anxiety, disruption, vigilance o Stress response that occurs • Voluntary responses: Coping with threat, blaming discrimination, limit social comparisons, disidentification o Disidentification from domain or group • Outcomes: Self-esteem, performance, health o Stima can effect mental and phys health • How do Muslims cope at the airport? o in our times terrorism is there and ppl think Muslim are associated with o if ur visibly muslin – what happens o he went to airport to go India o he saw Muslim guy – he had beard , the clothing o really long line up to check baggage o this man looked to him – like he was really scared- he standing hands straight head down , didn’t look at anyone o He was clearly uncomfortable- y ?? o Collective rep – were in Toronto – heightened sense of terrorism and Muslim linked his group degraded o so situation cues – hes in an airport ppl looking at him , their gonna ask question o personal characteristics – he was religious – he wore religious clothes , identified with his group o these 3 things in combo – prob gonna make identity threat appraisal - ppl are gonna judge me cuz how I look ect ect o non volitional – starts working , sweating thinking o volitional – stood still , imma control my actions so no 1 suspect that im doing something wrong o outcome - how is he feeling at that moment –scared worried , health wise – was stressed and discrete stress is damaging o its unhealthy for muslins to go to airports often cuz of these stresses o lots of Hindus or Muslims don’t like each other - that cud be another factor going in key to the model is identity threat appraisal o even if u say yes im being judged cuz of my group – like im getting trudged – but u can cope – some pal reappraise the sit – like it doesn have to do with me being Muslim or screw them I love my group – o there’s diff things u can do in ur mind that cud lead to positive outcomes or negative outcomes • just cuz u have identity treat - doesn’t mean negative effect Video – eye of the storm • 2 kids at their desk o Sandraw = brown eyes o Raymond – blue eys • Blue eyed ppl smarter , cleaner , ↑ civilized then brown eyed ppl o Brown eyed ppl didn’t like it o blue eyed kid = happy cuz felt better then brown eyed kids • Now – the eye of the storm –expt in teaches prej • Rice vill idoha – ↓ 1000 ppl- no gheto , no riots , no negro- all white all Christian o Surrounded by fields • Teacher deliberate provoked prej and discrimination based on colour of eye o Part of education – learn about living beyond the textbook • Martin leuther king – they shot a kind , y did they – they discussed it • So ridiculous , based on illogical things – adults don’t care enough to do enough , kids have to be told its wrong o Involved in finding out what happened – wants to feel what its like to be stepped on o Be kind to ur brothers, treat everyone how u want to be treated , treat them like their ur bro o Why dont we treat as our brothers – Indians , black ppl – what do ppl think when they see them – they think they are dum b , what do they say – nigger , negro o How are ppl of diff colours treated – they don’t get stuff cuz they are diff colours • Its hard to be judged by the colour of their skin – u don’t know how itt feels till its done to u o So she showed them based on colour of eyes • Tried it – blue eyed ppl should be on top the first day – blue eyed are better ppl in this room – smarter o Joerge washingtn had blue eys o Kids saying no – blue says they arnt right , the brown arnt diff then blue o Blue eyed ppl get 5 extra min recess where as the brown stay in o Brown eyed ppl don’t use drinking fountain has to use cups o Brown cant play with blue cuz u arnt as good o Wear coler on brown eyed to see tehm from distance o Fun seat = at front – so bue eyed sits at frong o Pg 127 – everyone red but laury but she has brown eyes – we have spent a lot of time waiting for browned eye o Brown eyed pl get out of hand use stick o Blue eyed gets to go first for lnch , brown cant go back for seconds o Kids tell lunch lady that they cant go back for seconds o Kids – felt like they were treated diff , she took our best friends away from us o 2 boys fighting – the brown eyed was called names so he hit blue guy- they called him brown eyes so he hit them – o Same way other ppl called black men nigres – it didn’t help to hit him ,didn’t stop him o Called him brown eyes –didn’t called him brown eyes ever b4  the blue eyed did it to be mean o Wathced how the cooperative students turned into nasty discriminating kids o Dominated group - ∆d their behav – they didn’t like 1 another well o Yesterday brown eyed wasn’t as good as blue eyed • Next day brown eyed better o Eg blue forgot glasses and the brown had ≠ • Good study cuz tells u : o good cuz this teacher tried to treat these young’s kids about race religions o Shows how easy we can become groupy , we can like the group that we belong and dislike groups we don’t belong o Give character/idea of what it is like to be discriminated at Lec 6= part 2 Stigma’s Self-Protective Properties Volitional Responses Stigma & Self-Esteem • Stigmatized are disadvantaged economically & interpersonally • Stigma should lead to ↓ self-esteem, right? o LSE – ppl to feel bad about themselves o Eg African Americans – poor interpersonal relationships – should ↓ self- esteem o Reflected Appraisals- I feel about myself is reflected on other ppls view – if u see me poorly I see myself as poorly o Self-fulfilling Prophecies- type of confirmation bias o I may confirm what they think of me o I give into norms of societiy • Wrong!- Blacks arnt LSE compared to white o Stigmatized have the same or ↑er (!) SE than non-stigmatized o Not true all they times o Why ?- whats protecting the way they feel about themselves • Ppl who think their sit condition = controllable ( indicats flaw on their part) – ↑ likely to feel negative evaluations of themselves = judtified= ↓ self esteem • Ppl who think stigma= uncontrollable = leads indiv to resist the blame for the stigma = attribute negative evlatuoins to prej and maintain self esteem Crocker stMajor, 1989 • 1 paper to look at stigmatization – wat does it feel like to be target of prejudice • Stigma can buffer self-esteem • Story of how I became “stigmatized” for protection o How stigma can help u ≠ feel bad about urself when bad things happen o Men complain about reverse discrimination – cuz ≠ being chosen for jobs cuz of affirmative action o He went to find academic position – job as prof  Hes gonna do well ur research is great  ur gonna pick ur job  Applied for jobs selectively - good jobs  October nov – apply , dec – jan – u get interview  He didn’t hear anything  Nothing no call , nothing o He was so disappointed- led to believe he wud get a job but he didn’t o What am I gonna do – my life long thing is to be prof  I wont get it
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