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PSYC12- Lec 8-done.doc

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Michael Inzlicht

Lecture 8— Stereotype Threat II • Continue lec on experiencing prejudice • Stereotype threat = sit phenomenon may help us understand group diff in performance , sit predicament where ppl are in where they are at risk of confirming negative stereotype and get all sorts of psychological effects Stereotype Threat and Performance • Group differences are real, but: o What do they mean? o Where do they come from? o Talked about group diff are real o There are diff in sat , iq pref ( blacks and white) , math and science between men and women are real o Dunno what they mean o Like may be due to the cultural on exam , or ect, largely envir • Stereotype Threat sital (vs. genetic vs. enviral)= account of group diffs in intellectual performance o This explanation counters envir or genetic o Although we think envir , social is positive= this is due to the poor envir== ↑ positive then genetic o If u belong to the groups still dont feel good o I grew up in neighborhood that was poor, I didn’t have enough for food , now ur the product that so u catn ∆ it o Forget about envir and genetics even though they contribute o Something in the envir itself can happen , right there when ur taking the test o Being at risk for confirming negative stereotypes= causes anxious nervous= leads them underperforming on various tests • Black white iq diff= last week • Stele and eronson =- first empirical demonstrate of stereotype threat o Examine black white test diff What about other stereotypes?, What about other groups • Barbie , times= magazine =” the math myth” • ST can depress women’s math test performance o There are theres stereotypes ( barbie I hate math) , time the math myth o Can it affect them , it does affect them o What kinds of sits can led to stereotype threat for women o Study= his first study he did • Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2000 • What type of sit evokes stereotype threat? • Caroton – women in engineering class, Captures stereotype perfectly o In some way she pressures in her head Doesn’t mean its ≠ real o Shes worried about how shes gonna b perceived she things its gonna be along stereotypic lines and it freaks her out , and confusion , arousal ,distraction o That is a bad way to learn= ur ≠ gonna learn by putting head down o Shes ≠ listening to prof o Explains y shes ≠ gonna do well in class o Other interesting part= 3 panels at stereotype thereat, o He wants to do= what kinds of sit evoke stereotype threat o One sit= prospect of being out-#d o # of ppl from ur group and ≠ from ur group can make a diff o When women or anyone notices there alone= thinks about what makes them unique= female at top of mind o In math engineering class= theres the semantic associations that women ≠ good at math , stereotype d ≠ to be good at math • Just being a minority can lead women to thinking this way o Makes u think about what makes u minority= if this is relevant o Like math test ull start thinking about stereotypes o And maybe can effect ur performance later on • Does stereotype threat only happen in conscious sit , where u have to be aware of the stereotype o Its ≠ consciously thinking about it o She doesn’t no if anyone tested that premise o U at least need to be aware that stereotype exists , ≠ at the moment even , just have to no o Woman being worse in math= if ur ≠ aware of it its unlikely to be effected by it o It can be conscious or unconscious but u have to know the stereotype • Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2000 • Method: Students take tests in groups of 3 o Uni student at brown uni made them right tests in groups of 3 o Male and female small room with 3 desks • Method : o Male vs Female students taking math test o Minority (2 M vs 1 F, males often confedeates ) vs. same sex-group (3 F)– all particpants o Added mixed-majority condition= 1 M vs 2 F- parametrically adjusted the # of men in the room o Gave everyone a math test • results= graph b o From perspective of women o Correcting for past performance o Women out#ed= do worse them those women in the same sex envir o Tests are exactly the same , only diff whose sitting around them o With 2 women great , with 2 men ≠ so great o Something about minority affects them o Males= ≠ affected by being in the minority o Its ≠ the case all minority envir are bad , its only bad for u when ur minority and in stereotyped domain o Men ≠ in stereotyped domina n- ≠ affected • gave women math or verbal tests o Find again women underperform in minority in math test o Compaered to same sex group o Didn’t show any pref diff inv erbal test o Its about being a minority in stereotyped domain • Study 2= graph 2= females with # of male sin 3 person group o 2 males= minority o Same sex group= 0 males o When women with 1 women and 1 men  preform in the middle o Women’s math test pref= varies parametrically as u ↑ men o Cuz= when out#d u think of what makes u out#d , gender identity in this case o When ≠ out#d but have 1 other person ≠ nearly as likely to think of ur gender identity= somewhat likely to think about it but ≠ as much as if ur out#d o When= 0 men then u don’t think of gender spontaneously o Thing gender= think stereotypes= freak out do worse o ↑ men= in math envir= makes things worse • Did we remind women or men about the existence that exists o Didn’t cuz if u remind ppl of the stereotype ull get effect that’s ≠ real= adds demand and create effect in lab that doesn’t work in real life o Go to math class at utsc= master phd level= find women out#ed by far o Used this as ↑ naturalistic way of activating stereotype o How do you know if stereotype exists Some of women prob ≠ aware= we dunno o Its about proportion of males ≠ # • Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev, 2000 • Prop of in-group and out-group members in an envir can affect intellectual performance o Even subtle reminders , u dunt need to be told ur race doesn’t do good in this test o Like posters in hallway . Chair of math department= pics of past chairs and notice thers no men , maybe my group isnt welcome o Subtle msg that get in o Subtle as= working at google= computer science= and then notice few female bathroom s , I gotta go up and down floor for bathroom and men don’t o These suttle signs send msgs about ur group and whether ur accepted or ≠ o At some level u have to be aware of stereotype , at that moment ur ≠ saying oh stereotype now , or now , at nonconcious level it can be activated • Small, seemingly harmless ∆s can have big impact on intellectual performance o Small make big group • Minority envirs= only harmful to stigmatized groups in stereotyped domains • Story= friend of his true story =isohan shrilankan , was grad student in diff department= studied history , heard him talking about research , I noticed im the only south Asian in my department , wudnt this mean I wud be stereotype threatened as well • Icicker= what will happen to my friend assohan o A-= hell underperform o B= hell over perform o C= he wont show any ill effect o D= Who`s Asohan o Its C= cuz he didn’t know the stereotype , thers no stereotypes that say south Asians in terms of knowledge of English o This shudnt evoke stereotype threat • men in this room= minority by far wud u underperform= no cuz thers no stereotype of men and psyc o No stereotype threat What about other stereotypes? • Basketball= white men cant jump o stereotype= white men cant jump= just for basket ball o white men ≠ good at basket ball o ∆d a little cuz of European ppl In NBA o laker good in the 80s – team largely black , but 1 white= kert rambus who wud play and =laugh cuz only white ppl • stereotype white cant play basketball and maybe in athletic ability theres diff between black and white when this stereotype to white athlete= who cares about doing well , cares about the domain o wud they be affected Stone et al., 1999 mini golf • Stereotype: Whites have less athletic ability than Blacks o Less gifted naturally • Will Whites underperform in mini-golf when stereotype active? o Minigolf this is how the stereotype done • Method: o Black vs White o Natural Ability vs Control  Golf= as product of natural ability , in theory shud activate negative stereotypes of white lack of natural ability  Control= ≠ being told anything about task o DV: # of strokes (lower strokes= better performance)  # of strokes to get ball in whole  Less strokes= better u did on the task • Graph 1- Mini golf pref black participants , white there o Minigolf as funct of race and task framing o Don’t mention whites worse then black , just told this I tests natural athletic ability vs just take golf task o Natural ability= black do fewer strokes then white , o No stat diff when ≠ natural ability o Only the natural ability where u see some prob= where they are un nerved by the stereotype o Causes stereotype threat • same thing happens if u do it like for basketball , it works for other domains like has been tested What about other stereotypes? Women= mechanic • Women to mechanic o mechanic= seems best for all ≠ to start the engine o maybe ur ≠ good diver and like other women ≠ good o stereotype women ≠ good drivers and certain ethnicities ≠ good o they are out there o female driver= stereotype that they arnt good drives • but ppl that care and track these things argue otherwise= like insurance, men gets in ↑ accidents that’s y there charged extra o skilled and doing stupid things o there’s a stereotype whether its true or not it was put to the test • group from Australia brought women in , had driving stimuli o looked like hyundi , steering wheel , brake , dash o instead of on the road theres shown tv screen where driving is realistic o sounds and turning realistic • do course at certain speed= measured how fast and how well they turned surprise 3 pedestrians walked across the screen= usually just slam on breaks o do the women kill the ppl on the road o key manipulation they are reminded the stereotype= done explicitly o where trying to see y women perceived as worse drivers then men o What happens? • Threat= Told about stereotpe= ≠ todl reminded botu stereotype= 60 hit the ppl o 25 % hit it when they ≠ told o it was hard ≠ to hit pedestrian that’s y its 25 o these stereotypes affect ppl in real life • Yeung & von Hippel, 2008 What about other stereotypes?= Gay man= pedofiles • Gay ppl may be pedophiles they have this secret tendency o Among some ppl there is this stereotype o Gay shudnt be around young kids , they are gonna corrupt and they are gonna do bad things to them o Thers this stereotype= ≠ true buts its there • Are gay men anxious around children because of ST? • Study done , brought college males= who self-identified= being gay , or straight and had the opportunity interact with young kids o They stereotype= primed in the mind o Didn’t ask what they felt , they looked at nonverbal between gay men and kids • When stereotype activated =gay men= ↑ reserved , less warm , ≠ natural , speech pattern ↑ um and a , disfluent • Authors of paper= reflects anxiety of confirming a stereotype What about other stereotypes?- poor ppl and tests= st • Do poor ppl underperform on tests because of ST? • Ses= socio economic status ( poor ≠ poor) relation between intellectual and school pref • Which extent can these diff, btw rich and poor, be explained by stereotype threat • Group from France , brought students to do general intelligence test o B4 it they asked rents income and level of educating o Very sensitive questions ,esp in Toronto= my rents didn’t fin ↑ school , my rents in and out= hard o France= status , social status ↑ important , older country class ↑ ingrained • When poor ppl did it right b4 and write after o B4= primed with identity of being ↓ ses= affects test pref o After= doesn’t affect test prof • Found reminder of poverty affects ur pref on tests • It again gives sit explanation to why we have these diff What about other stereotypes? - females and negotiating table • Do females underperform on the negotiating table because of ST? • Finding= few women in upper parts of management in business o Not a lot of female ceo o This balck= female minority ceo o U can just look at senior or even middle management= don’t find a lot of women there • 1= cud it be stereotype • 2 ndfinding= women tend ≠ to be good negotiators relative to men o When ppl have competition’s men over perform, or perform better than women o Women shy , just don’t do well , reserved • Question= kellogs school of management o Is 1 of the reasons they underperform whether in business or negotiation o Is it cuz they are worried about stereotypes • When stereotypes activated= women do worse on these objective criteria relative to men o Only when stereotype activated less when ≠ • Majority= ≠ doing anything , don’t say ur suck , cant succd, they arnt even in the envir • Minoriy= it just happens in head o Happens in their head, this worry sets process of streotype threat and ends poor pref • Iclicker which of the following gorups is prob ≠ a target of stereotype threat o A- women in math o B- whites in sport o C- men in driving ability o D- the elderly in memory performance o E- whites in prej behaviour – sterotype that whties are racist , when whtie do IAT – implcit measure of bias , when white ppl take iaat and richt b4 they tell u if ur racist or ≠ , they do worse on iAT , they are hsown to be ↑ raicts then if they wrnt told o Some white may be concerned of appearing prek , and cuz of this ur worreid ppl jduge u , and this is stereotype threat o Worried about confirming it and underminds pref o In this case it’s a task that asses prej= do wrse • cudnt just being reminded of stereotype make stereotype in the mind o Yea its possible o Now maybe their thinking about it when they didn’t think of it b4 o Men stereotyped to be bad drivers, or women bad at math= ur creating it o U cud create these to make conclusions that are wrong o That’s y he did his study= cuz it doesn’t overly tell u the stereotype e o It cud even be about personal rep= all of us are known , to that extent u are u have reputation o I have rep of being late, I may wanna ≠ be late , but then o Ones rep can also be threatening , worried about confirming and motivated to deny it cud cause poor How do Stereotypes Threaten? • Proximal mechanism: ST temporarily impairs working memory • Why does this how and how does this work o In terms of precise cog , emotional mechanisms in place o Proximal mechanism= most closely touches performance o Is impairness in working memory capacity • Working memory: ability to temporarily hold and manipulate info for cog tasks performed in daily life o some ppl call it short term memory but doesn’t like that o Its temporary= it holds info for few seconds o Can hold limited # of items ( 7 +/- 2)= it has a small capacity ( 5-7) o It holds and manipulates info o Working memory depends on control of attention and mental effort • It’s a central executive= its in ur head that lets u pay attention at the moment and maintain things in the temporary storage • Eg use it when u use it to remember phone number= u might be rehersing but do do that u need working memory o Activiely doing this to maintin it o U might use it to inhibit things – push things away o Main thing= its way of contorlling ur attention o And it’s the thing that gets affected most proximally by stereotype threat Schmader & Johns, 2003 st • 1 study said answer what it stereotype • Hyp: ST lowers test performance because it ↓s Working Memory capacity o WM: ability to stay focused and inhibit unwanted thoughts o Reason it may occupy working memory cuz like instead of focusing on math test ur thinking about other things= oh their gona think about me this way o its thinking about all the ways behav may confirms or disconfirms negative stereotype o That may occupy working memory o Working memory can only store limited # of things , ↑ things it stores the less efficient it is o If ur worried about confirming negative stereotype= ur actively worried about it= and ur paying less attention to like doing test, hitting ball , playing with child naturally o These working memory deficits can be way ST works • WM task: dual processing task o Shown word list; asked to recall words later, in order  Shown list of ↑ing length  3 word , 4, 5, 6,- done till ur memory limit reached and u cant remember the order  Gives index of WM capacity o Do all diff kinds of WM tests , only 1 he explained • Method: o Females took math test o Stereotype activated (threat) vs. non-activated (non-threat)  Activated diff ways= subtlety – like diff in women in group
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