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PSYC12- Lec 7- done.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Lecture 7—Stereotype Threat I • Now talking about prej from view of target ! • Next week no class ! Movie Time!! • To tells us how smart , adujusted and wat goeson inside our mind o or do they narrow our mind • testing and intelligence on discovering psychology • how smart u are - list accomplishments , grades, posessions , what ur good at • iq – if u say its 100 ur avg , that means half the pop for which the test was developled will have higehr scores and the other half is ↓ • what effect do these #s have in ur life • can richness and complexitiy of itelligence be reudced to a # • focus on psyc asssesment –tests how ppl are diff in abilities , beahv and personalities • most well known tests = those maesure inteligence o sat- easures developed academic abbilities o some tests do spec subject areas o together all these = cog test = measure mental ability • other measure personality = measure non cog parts of u and personality- interests , values personality traits o rosarch – hels maesure metnal and emtional prob – it reflects inner post tasts o MMP I _ minosoda multiphasic personality inventory –used to see if its abnormal or normal o bottom line – is to get responses conviently and effeicnetly o see if measures in real life ablity • hard to image time where someone wasn’t tested –adam and eve ! o emperors of acienty china – started it for govnt officials • frances goldman of england – key in doing tests – tried to se tht heredity and envir to inttlegence • alfred bena of franc e- intelecutal pref of students – so they can sep retarted vs norm – and removes the teacher’s bias and subjective approach o  his tests were current pref but not innate o educators that administered tests • first great # of students of various students obtained o they did the avg schore – test results in term sof mental age o if they serve avg of the ones of age 5 then they are age 5 – regardless of their chornological age o benes tests had big effect in US o full of ppl in army recruiting – they were also tested for intelligece • assesment seen as a way to bring order to chiotic society- sep those who can benefit from education ad military schooling and thoes who werent o assesments cud be used to sep l for leaders o stas were used to show that imigrants and blacks ere infereior • teron = standford university – standford bene assesment test- created IQ – ratio of metnal age/chronological age * 100 o he also believed IQ was heriditory , and its saying its unchaging • david rexler – psychologist – made new test to solve the prob of dependence on language of the other tests – made new non verbal sections with the verbal ones o psyc tests is big buisness , 1000s of psychologists use them • how do we know if tests test what its supposed to • howard uni – wiliam curtis banks – missue and rical bias in apptidue testsign • a test has to be valid – it has to measure what it is that ur interested in o like college tests, and job tests has to be reliabilae- has to measure what were interested in and same measre all the time o and have to be standardized proerly • alfred beneys dream – psyc assesmetn wud replace bias subjective evaluations to obkective ones o wanna remove colours , race, gender o bias way it was used the results to tell them certain pl not capable of doing things when they were - -> cuz they were developed in ways that it doesn’t work if ppl do diff thingsin doing tasks • if able to do well in tests but cant do well in other areas- like they were taught to do well in the tests • when test score – labelling becomes a self fufelling prophecy = like im a c student and 100 Iq • stereotype threat o knowing otehrs judge us cud distort our preformance • women vs men on standardized math tests - stereotype that woemn cant do mat o one doing diff math tests –when gets frustration that stereotype can play for her ad anyone else that watches ere - this maes it diff for men who takes the same study o if u take woemn and men who are good at math a diff tets – redicted that women wudnt do as well as men cuz of stereotype threat o take threat out – just before ppl take test – we say this is not a test that can discriminate betewen men and women so now she does better goes up dramatically • sense of how this process- sstereotype threat can actually affect pref in persons life intelligience = synmaic cog process o some see it as a trait that can be measured by IQ tests • in last few years cog scientists – from harvard has vien new persepctives = howard • thers idff kinds of thinkgs around world that ppl can do weell in all around the wold o linguistic , mathematical = these are those intelligence on IQ tests in school l o leave school mustical intelligence , spatail intellegence o body kinestic – using parts of ur body – dnacer , atheletic o iterpersonal – know how others thing o intraperesona- understanding urself o ppl have diff ways of rep things in head • iq fame and fortune is what put psyc around the wrold, stats and iq test have reached ↑est point o we need to look at larger view • yale – robert – lots of roots to get to somether e faster- one with hihg spatial ability can do this faster o low corelation between this practical and ↑ academic one – so ppl cud be good in one and not good in other o he views intelligence as abilitiy to adapt to diff envir – go to evir and add what u need to learn shape the envir – make it better for urself • sleect a new ienvir • prediction level of future jbo is ↓ – • tests predicts pref on jobbettern then iq testes • neuroscientists o proposed to bipass envir o m eameausre brains response to certain interupitng stimuli o brain of smarter person will have smaller peaks cuz its brain adapts fsater o dunno new probs it can created o hereditiy and envir contribution varries , all we know is the diff between us • asnwer the following based on what u personally believe • do men and women diff in intellecutal ability o A- yes 50 o B- o- 34 o c_ dunno o teslls u stereotype , its an opinion • Do whties and asians diff in intellectual ability? o A- yes 70 o B- o- 24 o c_ dunno o it’s a stereotype again dunt forget its not based on other info , wer not saying which is smarter just is there a diff • do whties and blakcs idff in intelectual ability o A- yes- o B- no- 50 o c_ dunno • these are all stereotypes that we are willign to give him – based on what u think he watns to here , what is approap to resposnes , what u want the wordl to be • blacks let willing to say yes there Major & O’Brien, 2005 slide he wants us to know !!! • model of stigma and rxns to stigma o improtant to remember- ppl have a decision to say it’s a treat or not • volition and non-volitional reponses o volitional – how to ppl manage threats o wre talking about non-volitional responses for stereotype threat – it may evoke stress, anxiety arousal • now were taking about the nonvolitational responses !! • Male-Female Math Performance Difference o data- that ppl have produced o this is magnitude of sex diff favouring males o y axises= #s above 0 means male prefromed better then females o early elementry = girls advnace o it was a meta-analysis of early 90s from data form 70-80s o thers prob ↓ sex diff now • according to this old data o girls fav in elementry after that it favours men o based om diff tests –sat , standardized testes, class pref o he wishes that it wud be 0 = but its not o boys tend to do better then girls on some tests o we dotn no what it means – like we dunno if the tests favours boys or something • see in math engineering , physics – we see that its male dominated • Black-White IQ distribution o comes from controversial source called the bell curved based on iq o it may be bias , or not predict things = howard garnder said o we notice 2 things – these curves largely overlap – for the most part these distributions are the same o but see diff – favoring whties over black by 10 points o 110 whties , 90 for blacks o these are avgs – so we cant tell anythign about anyone based on the avg o anyone can be anywhere Ask Yourself • Ask yourself about group differences in “intellectual performance” in quotes cuz we dunno if iq measures the intelligence o Race: Black-White IQ difference o Sex: Male-Female math difference o SES: Rich-Poor IQ difference • Why are groups different? o Controversial topics • Maybe its all about ses- about intelligence enriching things – when ur rich u have ↑ access – to even like breakfast • Envir diff • A lot of men good at math and a lot bad at math and women stay cluster in middle or thers other explanations to explain y women don’t like careers in math o Maybe women ↑ interested in other jobs – its not that they arnt good • Why do groups diff in intellectual pref o A- not diff o B- tests are unfair o C- diff socializing envir - ↑est o D – genetics – ppl dtn think theres a diff o E – don’t want to answer - lowest Origin of Intelligence • Nature- genetics , bio , predisposition ( its like natural) • Nurture- how ur raised ,envir ur in , what u see day to day Genetics • Intelligence= ↑ly heritable o If ur smart ur siblings are smart • ↑ correlation between parent IQ and child IQ o 047 correlation between rent and child o Correlation between rent and any child = 0 , like someone elses is child o U might say they also share envir , have same values = thers a lot of shared things going on so there cud be envir diff • IQ of identical twins is ↑ly related; ↑ than fraternal o Monozygotic = share 100% of dna = genetic clones o Fraternal – genetically no diff then other sibling gs – they shared a womb that’s it – their s is 50% 5-0 o Can say its hereditary o But an also say they share the same envir o Identically literally treated interchangeably- they share a lot things , they treated ↑ similarly like even clothes same • IQ of identical twins reared apart is ↑ly related o Whole database of this o Looking at identical twins reared apart and fraternal reared apart o Identical ↑ related then fraternal o Rearing apart important – czu now the twins in diff envir , may be living in diff envir o Argues for biology o But adoption agencies chose families that share envir – wealth , religion ect ect so cud be biology but we dunno • IQ of adopted children is related to IQ of biological mother, ↓ related to IQ of adopted mother o Genetic overlap between adapted mother and child = 0 o Bio mother and adopted child = 50% o Argues again there’s a genetic component Envir • Envir also plays role • IQ of identical twins reared apart is ↓ related than IQ of identical twins reared together o Remmeber the numbrs he gave ! o Reared apart share ↓ of the envir so then say aspect of envir • IQ of fraternal twins is ↑ strongly related than IQ of regular siblings o On avg regular siblings share 50% and fraternal also share 50% dna o But fraternal share ↑ of the envir then regular siblings o Same time , sam eroom , same game , rents dress same= share ↑ the the envir then reuglar siblings o Regular siblings don’t share as much of the envir • IQ of adopted children is ↑ similar than unrelated indivs reared apart o So if u look at iq of 2 adopted kids from diff mothers o Those are ↑ similar then 2 diff children o Envir lays role that’s y its similar • Impoverished envirs related to ↓ IQ o Famous studies loking at poor envir in london england – ↓ iq then similarly age matched kids o The longre kids remained in improversihed envir – ↓ iq is o Opp is ture – indiv in rich envir good envir – they have hgiher iq and longer they are there the ↑er the iq is Nature vs Nurture • Both Nature and Nurture contribute to intelligence o
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