Lecture 2 – Jan 16
Discrimination when buying a new car.
How would we study the existence of race/gender discrimination in car buying?
• Same dealer
• Same car
Ayres & Siegelman (1995)
Origins of Stereotypes
We categorize objects so that we know what to expect and what to do with them.
However, categorization can get unethical with humans.
Example Hassidic Jews
• Black hats, black suits, beards, ringlet ‘sideburns’, religious o Not limited to physical traits, can also be in personality/identity traits
• There’s an infinite number of stimuli in environment and we have a limited
capacity cognitive capacity.
• Categorization allows us to expense less time/effort on things
• Essential part of learning
• Occurs spontaneously – occurs without volition, awareness, meaning
o Automatically categorize race, age, gender
Stereotypes are traits associated with category.
• They can be useful in making predictions
• They are based on some form of truth/observation
• They are fast and efficient
• They are over-generalizations – they can be true about a group of people but not
of an individual
• Categorize world into in-groups and out-groups
o In-group: groups to which we belong
o Out-group: groups to which we do not belong
• Simplifies the world into them vs. us
o More likely to trust someone from our in-group
• Categorizing accentuates inter-group differences
• Tend to think more positively on in-group in-group bias
• Tend to think of out-groups as all the same out-group bias
Jane Creba and Chantel Dunn were both shot in gunplay in Toronto, both accidently
• More people know who Creba is over Dunn – there was more attention given to
• Creba was white, Dunn was black Is the media accurately portraying reality? Or is it creating stereotypes
Romer, Jamieson, and deCoteau. (1998)
African-American are heavily presented in News stories about crime
• Accurate representation?
• Biased representation?
TV News cannot report all criminals or victims; selectively samples
• Does the news emphasize one group vs. another for crime?
• How often are AA seen as perpetrators? Victims?
Analyzed 11:00pm newscast on 3 stations in Philadelphia for 3 months
• Perpetrators & victims tend to be of the same race
o 10% Black on White vs. 18% White on Black