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Lecture 3

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Lecture 3 Class overview -confirmation biases : how we see the world how we are -stereotypes are clear until they are applied to groups that are not supposed to video : hannah received sentencing for stabbing, sentenced as a 300lb black man —certain groups are targeted, one way that media can look at who commits crimes and etc. Subtyping -Re-fence stereotype-disconfirming individuals ● Allows for maintenance of stereotypes & prejudice ● Allows people to feel non- prejudiced Racist for Obama : subtyping:don cherrie : hockey analyst that is racist “sweden hockey players bad, mtl hockey players blamed for ethnicity” -had a french player and he liked him but he can still hate others. Subtyping is when he likes one player and has an exception but is still racist. -people can have two minds, racist can still vote for obama if they think he is better than black. “re-fencing” , different category -allows for prejudice and stereotypes to continue Macra, Milne and Bodenhausen -Humans have developed cognitive “tools” allowing us to analyze social environment efficiently. ● Stereotypes are one of these “tools:”: -observations “tools” build houses, think about things , navigate physical environment efficiently ● They allow us to forego effortful individuation ● They make useful predictions ● When taxed, people use stereotypes ● Are stereotypes energy-saving devices? Macra, Milne and Bodenhausen (continued) ● Participants performed two tasks simultaneously ● Task 1—Impression formation: ● Name followed by 10 trait terms ● Half given a stereotypic label (e.g. doctor, artist, skinhead). Half given no label. ● Half of the traits were stereotypic, half neutral ● Task 2—Information Monitoring ● Ps heard a 2 minute passage on Indonesia ● DV: Recall of traits with appropriate targets; performance on multiple-choice test on passage task 1 -Mary / John/Nigel (warm) (aggressive) (smart) (bald ) Doctor skin head task 2 -labels give them a short cut to remember about each character and they can remember information about indonesia -mental short cut allowed den to free up their mind and able to recall things about indonnesia Study 1—results • Results confirmed predictions: − Stereotypes improved recall − For stereotypic and neutral items − Improved MC performance -Who is this ? -world appears not so much as it is, but as we are (old man image) -we have ideas and things that go on in our head, we construe with our thoughts even tough the person isn’t like that -world appears as we are: what we perceive is what we want to perceive -Bruner and Goodman: perception depends on what we have in our heads : 0 on y axis is deviations meaning u are perceiving it as it is. -people didn’t deviate much however, when circles became coins , estimate of size perceived coins as much larger and errors much larger. nickel much larger than actual penny , same thing with a dime , quarter -what value, 25cents valued is more than a penny, the judgement of size is influenced by it -poor people, value of penny is much larger so a poor kid sees it to be much larger than a rich kid -value they place effects actual size. Confirmation bias: ● Stereotypes bias information in confirmatory manner ● Confirming info more fully processed ● Ambiguo
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