PSYC12 Lecture 3 23/01/2014
Maintenance of stereotypes
o Confirmation biases
o By having ideas in our mind, we can create the behaviour we expect to see in other
o Self-fulfilling prophecy
Help them do what they want to do
Makes them feel better about themselves
Video – fact zone
- Hannah Stevenson, a 16- year- old girl stabbed classmate to do with screwdriver
- Tried as a black adult
- Unjust that exist in the just system
- Would a racist have voted for Obama?
o No (60+ %)
- An applying skinhead, Pakistani and Chinese stereotypes save cognitive resources?
o Yes (50+ %)
- Studies have shown that when poor children estimate the size of coins they tend to see the
coins as physically larger than the size estimated by rich children. This is an example of:
A. Confirmation bias
B. Illusory correlation
C. Self-fulfilling prophecy (behavioural confirmation)
D. Outgroup homogeneity effect
E. The operating process
- In Word, Zanna, & Cooper’s study of the effects of race on interviewer and applicant behaviour,
when White applicants were treated like Black applicants they performed worse. This is an
A. Confirmation bias
B. Illusory Correlation
C. Self-fulfilling prophecy
C. Outgroup homogeneity effect
D. The operating process
Subtyping (different category even though they’re the same)
- Don Cherry, “noted” hockey analyst.
o Racist - most talked about topic regarding him.
o Often talk about “chicken ass Sweden”, French-Canadians are not as good.
o On CBC, funded by taxpayers. Pressure on him to tame things down.
Often address things explicitly, how he loves French people.
Maybe like one French player but in terms of French population, he still don’t like
- “Do the right thing” Spike Lee
o Pizza parlor in one area of Brooklyn New York, most population is black
o Owner of pizza parlor is Italian. Confronts the owner (racist).
o Asked who his favourite basketball player: Michael Jordan, singer: Prince, actor: Denzel
All black but still hate black people.
- Inconsistent, refencing. Don’t fit your stereotype by putting them into another category
- Allows maintenance for stereotypes and prejudice o Different from the mold
o The category is still valid
o Leading one to rethink the category. The fence could be reserved
- Helps people feel better about themselves
o Avoid the label of racist
Macrae, Milne & Bodenhausen (1994)
Can Stereotypes save energy resources?
- Stereotypes are cognitive “tools”
o Allow us to forego effortful individuation
o Make useful predictions
o When taxed (tired), people use stereotypes
- Task 1 - Shown name of a person, followed by umber of traits associated, given the name and
stereotypical label and presented with traits that were half neutral.
o Traits that follow are consistent (e.g. doctor and smart, skinhead and aggressive & bald)
- Task 2 – hear a passage about Indonesia
- Task 3 – know which trait belonged to who and also a question about Indonesia (know the
o When given a stereotypical label, better able to remember the person associated with it.
(acted as a mental shortcut)
o Better able to remember labels that are either consistent or inconsistent
o Better able to remember info they heard about Indonesia (had mental shortcut, easier to
Who is this?
- Homeless man, grumpy, focused, determined.
- Veteran, senior citizen, caretaker.
o He could be anyone, many things to say about him
- The world appears not so much as it is, but as we are
o Often times what we perceive is what we want to perceive and presents what is in our
mind. Based on our own experiences and own judgment.
o Evolved in the late 40’s, the new look in psychology
o What we perceive outside of our heads is based on what is in our heads.
Bruner & Goodman, 1947
- Ask participants to estimate the size of circle/disk
o Zero – 100% accurate, the best, no deviation
Perceiving the thing exactly as it objectively is
o Sometimes the grey disks are coins (not actual circles)
Perceived as much larger
Errors are systematic. (nickel perceived larger than penny, dime as larger than
When the thing you’re judging has real value in the world, the size varies on the
value you place on the object. (quarter is larger than penny)
Money is valuable, influences on the judgment
o Divided into groups (rich and poor)
For poor people, value is much larger in their minds than it is in a rich person.
The value put on the object influences the perception of the object.
- How does this influence our perception on people? Confirmation Bias
o When you have an idea in your m