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Lecture 7

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Michael Inzlicht

Lecture 7 – Stereotype Threat I Group Differences in Measurement of Intellectual Performance Major & O’Brien, 2005 Novolitional responses – responses that come up when threatened Male-Female Math Performance Difference Black-White IQ Distribution There is mostly overlap. But Black IQ is supposedly at the lower end. We have no idea of the origin of this test or if it’s biased or whatever Ask yourself about group differences in “intellectual performance” • Race: Black-White IQ difference o Stereotype that Black people won’t do well in school o Less opportunities o Prejudiced teachers o Peers that say that they aren’t smart enough so they go along with it o Biased IQ tests – cultural exposure is not equal • Sex: Male-Female math difference o Nobody likes a smart girl o Girls are supposed to be artistic not good at equation o Environmental factors in the class – starts early • SES: Rich-Poor IQ difference o Less opportunities o More funds to back them up o Difference in values – cultural differences, beliefs Origins of Intelligence Nature – Genetics Intelligence is highly heritable • High correlation between parent IQ and child IQ o This may be cultural values and environment though • IQ of identical twins is highly related; more than fraternals • IQ of identical twins reared apart is highly related • IQ of adopted children is related to IQ of biological mother, less related to IQ of adopted mother Nurture – Environment Environment also plays role • IQ of identical twins reared apart is less related than IQ of identical twins reared together • IQ of fraternal twins is more strongly related than IQ of regular siblings • IQ of adopted children is more similar than unrelated individuals reared apart • Impoverished environments related to lower IQ o Longer you are exposed to poor environment, the lower your IQ Nature vs. Nurture Both Nature and Nurture contribute to intelligence But genetics certainly play role • Heritability index = 0.50 (may be as high as 0.65) If within-group difference has genetic component, perhaps between-group difference has genetic component too. • No. Between-group differences may be caused by different factors than within-group difference Does the Difference Exist? “Intellectual performance” (whether biased or not) reveal robust differences. – This amount of change in 10 years points to environmental difference, not genetic BUT: • What does this difference mean? Are the tests unfair? Tests are culturally biased • External bias: Bias in the test themselves? How are they performed and what environment are they written in • Internal bias: there’s cultural bias
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