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Lecture 4: Modern Prejudice

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Michael Inzlicht

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Lecture 4: Modern Prejudice Class overview Maintenance of stereotypes (continued)  Ironic maintenance of stereotypes Modern Prejudice vs Old fashioned prejudice  Modern Racism  Aversive Racism Automaticity & Control Movie Time! Measuring modern prejudice  Implicit Association Test  Shoot/Don’t shoot reaction time task Black vs. White  (black) Richard Sherman: football player who spoke highly of his wins became considered a thug; whereas Justin Beiber is a misguided kid. Both receive negative attention, but different attributions are given. Stereotype Suppression  Stereotypes are efficient, fulfill motivations, and automatic  BUT, They negatively impact targets; Society has deemed stereotyping to be unsavoury  “Solution” = “Suppress Stereotypes.”  The intention to supress requires that you remember what you’re not supposed to do. Then remembering what you weren’t supposed to do, actives it more. Thus, this solution is not good. Mental Control: how do you control thoughts in your mind 3 elements  Goal: do not think of the stereotype eg) don’t think  Operate: act on the goal. Eg) im not going to think about ______  Monitor your effectiveness and see if youre reaching your goal  Monitoring keeps that thought more readily accessible  Researcher Daniel wegner conducted a study on mental control  P1 explicitly told not to think of white bear  P2 not given instructions  Both groups were told to write down whenever they thought of the white bear.  Results: the suppression group thought of the white bear more often  the mental resources you require to suppress a thought, diminish in strength over time. So if your monitoring process is stronger than your operation process, the target thought will be even more accessible.  Thought suppression = more readily available in mind Mental Control requires:  Operating Process (OP)  Takes action to meet desired state (prevent stereotypes)  Resource-rich; controlled  Monitoring Process (MP)  Compares current state with desired states (scans mind for stereotypes)  Resource-free; automatic  Under load, OP fails, MP continues and results in opposite of intended thought Macrae, Bodenhausen, Milne, & Jetten, 1994  Hypothesis: Because suppressors activate the unwanted stereotype repeatedly (i.e. MP), they will experience “rebound effect” (i.e. greater activation)  People who supress will be faster to respond to concept-related words (like violent and aggressive)  Methods:  Suppress skinhead stereotype vs. non-suppress and Write “day in the life” of photographed person  Other group is told to write about the photographed person without limitation  LDT: Lexical Decision Task: measures whether a construct was activated or not; not to be confused with “whether people are slower to react to stereotype vs.non-stereotype words”. The latter is true, BUT not all the time. So generally, LDT measures construct activation/non- activation.  P Judges whether presented strings are words or non-words  The real words words were either related to the concept of skinhead, thereby priming P; or not, thereby having a neutral effect on P  If construct is primed, Pprimedwill react to it more quickly than neutraly recognizing “concept-related-words” as real words faster than real words which are NOT RELATED to the concept.  Reaction Time for stereotypical words (e.g. aggressive, racist)  Lower RTs means stereotype is more accessible/activation  LDT example using concept of skinhead  P are presented [Gwosjs], [flat], [violent]; and must ID if they are a word/non-word  P will ID [violent] as a word faster than other two bc it’s concept related primed  Graph shows reaction time to stereotypical words of P supressor/primed non-suppressor/neutral  Suppressors (L-Bar) had a lower reaction time to stereotypical words than non-suppressors  Suppression can lead to rebound effects greater activation of thought than would be the case if thought not suppressed  This affects thought and behaviour  Critique:  Will this generalize to other groups?  Will it predict real behaviours? Modern Prejudice  Prejudice has changed!  Dave chapelle: people don’t often talk about stereotypes. The way people present themselves is different than how they really are. So how can we measure our prejudicial state today?  Segregation in the US  Prejudice today is different from prejudice 40-50 yrs ago  50s, overt segregation of public services (water fountain & pool) by colour  Similar In Canada too during early C20th  Mcgill University had a Jewish quota  Charged head tax on Chinese immigrants Modern Racism Polls show decrease in overt racism  People thought racism is thing of the past, but does it really? We come to this conclusion bc it is no longer “fashionable” to be racist. So is it possible the context of racism has changed instead? For example, there is still resistance to integration  Affirmative Action: policy aiming to correct historical wrongs  Eg) university job postings for professors usually include a “preference type” (male, female, racial group) to maintain diversity. Though many maintain this is counter-intuitive  Marriage: many people are opposed to inter-racial marriage  Housing: “not in my backyard”  neighbourhood opposing a religious building (NIMBY) These examples suggest Prejudice went underground and “modernized”… Old fashioned vs. Modern Racism Old fashioned Modern Racism It is a bad idea for Chinese and Whites to Chinese people have more influence upon the marry one another push for multiculturalism than they ought to have It was wrong for the government to outlaw There are too many non-English signs in the the Chinese Head Tax city If a Chinese family with the same income & Chinese are getting too pushy in their demands education moves next door, I would mind a for government reparations lot I favour full racial integration Chinese have gotten more economically than they deserve Chinese people should learn to speak proper The news media has shown more respect to English Chinese than they deserve Modern Racism (MR)  MRs don’t consider themselves racist; racism is a thing of the past  Racist feelings are disguised as negativity towards all who oppose traditional values/policies  Recall the NIMBY: we’re worried about traffic, drainage etc. Though a walmart would meet no opposition, despite drawing more traffic  Racism is expressed indirectly to a group by  Any criticisms? Aversive Racism (AR)  Ambivalence develops from 2 conflicting beliefs:  Negative stereotypes derived from culture & cognition (prejudice)  Egalitarian values, belief in meritocracy, justice (to be non-prejudice)  Result: Feeling of discomfort in inter-racial interaction bc they legitimately want to be egalitarian, BUT they feel prejudice  Sometimes, they aren’t consciously aware of negative feelings  Strong motivation to control prejudice – sometimes yields to avoiding or suppressing prejudice  When normative pressure absent, prejudice may be expressed Study: With weak normative pressures, are OK with prejudice (Kawakami, 2009)  Unclear normative pressures = self-proclaimed non-prejudice York U students were exposed to a racist interaction unknowingly (to them) enacted by confeds, and didn’t do anything. Though, dispersion of responsibility, bystander effect, etc.  With clear normative pressures, ARs are egalitarian  ARs consider themselves egalitarian and are unaware of their implicit bias  Liberals (AR) vs. Conservatives (MR) I clicker Qs T/F: Racist people have more stereotypes than non-racist people? F, though controversially.  Devine: The difference b/w racist
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