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Lecture 3: Maintenance of Stereotypes

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Michael Inzlicht

Wk 3: Maintenance of Stereotypes Overview Cognitive  Confirmation bias  Perceptual  Behavioural Motivational Maintenance of Stereotypes: Cognitive Subtyping  Re-fence stereotype- disconfirming individuals  Eg) Don cherry –― racist-ish?‖  Refencing - eg) disliking Allows for maintenance of stereotypes and prejudice  Basically creating a category that makes them acceptable to yourself (and making feel non-racist), YET keeping the stereotype  Allows people to feel non-prejudiced Macrae, Milne, & Bodenhausen, 1994 study on if subtyping lets us save cognitive energy  Humans have developed cognitive ―tools‖ allowing us to analyze social environment efficiently.  Stereotypes are one of these ―tools:‖  They allow us to forego effortful individuation  They make useful predictions  When taxed, people use stereotypes  Are stereotypes energy-saving devices?  Participants performed two tasks simultaneously:  Task 1—Impression formation:  Name followed by 10 trait terms  Half given a stereotypic label (e.g. doctor, artist, skinhead). Half given no label.  Half of the traits were stereotypic, half neutral  Task 1 example  Mary = warm/ smart (trait), Doctor (label); Nigel = aggressive (t), skinhead (l)  Task 2—Information Monitoring  Ps heard a 2 minute passage on Indonesia  DV: Recall of traits with appropriate targets; performance on multiple-choice test on passage.  Eg) who was warm? P then provides one of the names  Study 1- results  Results confirmed predictions:  Stereotypes/stereotypical labels improved recall For stereotypic and neutral items  Allows us to make correct inferences about ppl  Improved MC performance Who is this?  The world appears not so much as it is, but as we are. Bruner & Goodman, 1947  Late 40s, ―Perception often depends on what is inside of our heads‖  P given a measurement instrument to Estimates the size of discs  No deviation = exactly as it objectively is  P and Pkids didn’t deviate much when estimating size of discs BUT systematically deviated in estimation when measuring coins in such a way that the larger the coin value, the larger the size is perceived  Thus our mental knowledge of 25 cents being more than 5 cents, influenced our perception of the objective size of the coins  This effect is magnified for the poor  This is explained by the idea that the value that people place effects how they perceive objects  So, a dime has higher value to a poor person, than it does to a wealthy person Confirmation Bias  Stereotypes bias information in confirmatory manner  Confirming info more fully processed  Ambiguous info seen as stereotype confirming  Eg) you seek information from ppl/si
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