Wk 3: Maintenance of Stereotypes
Maintenance of Stereotypes: Cognitive
Re-fence stereotype- disconfirming individuals
Eg) Don cherry –― racist-ish?‖ Refencing - eg) disliking Allows for maintenance of stereotypes and
Basically creating a category that makes them acceptable to yourself (and making feel non-racist), YET
keeping the stereotype
Allows people to feel non-prejudiced
Macrae, Milne, & Bodenhausen, 1994 study on if subtyping lets us save cognitive energy
Humans have developed cognitive ―tools‖ allowing us to analyze social environment efficiently.
Stereotypes are one of these ―tools:‖
They allow us to forego effortful individuation
They make useful predictions
When taxed, people use stereotypes
Are stereotypes energy-saving devices?
Participants performed two tasks simultaneously:
Task 1—Impression formation:
Name followed by 10 trait terms
Half given a stereotypic label (e.g. doctor, artist, skinhead). Half given no label.
Half of the traits were stereotypic, half neutral
Task 1 example
Mary = warm/ smart (trait), Doctor (label); Nigel = aggressive (t), skinhead (l)
Task 2—Information Monitoring
Ps heard a 2 minute passage on Indonesia
DV: Recall of traits with appropriate targets; performance on multiple-choice test on passage.
Eg) who was warm? P then provides one of the names
Study 1- results
Results confirmed predictions:
Stereotypes/stereotypical labels improved recall For stereotypic and neutral items
Allows us to make correct inferences about ppl
Improved MC performance
Who is this?
The world appears not so much as it is, but as we are.
Bruner & Goodman, 1947
Late 40s, ―Perception often depends on what is inside of our heads‖
P given a measurement instrument to Estimates the size of discs
No deviation = exactly as it objectively is
P and Pkids didn’t deviate much when estimating size of discs BUT systematically deviated in estimation
when measuring coins in such a way that the larger the coin value, the larger the size is perceived
Thus our mental knowledge of 25 cents being more than 5 cents, influenced our perception of the objective
size of the coins
This effect is magnified for the poor
This is explained by the idea that the value that people place effects how they perceive objects
So, a dime has higher value to a poor person, than it does to a wealthy person Confirmation Bias
Stereotypes bias information in confirmatory manner
Confirming info more fully processed
Ambiguous info seen as stereotype confirming
Eg) you seek information from ppl/si