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PSYC12 Article 3 Notes.docx

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Janelle Leboutillier

Glick & Fiske An Ambivalent Alliance Hostile and Benevolent Sexism as Complementary Justifications for Gender Inequality • benevolent sexism: provides protection and affection to women who embrace conventional roles o characterizes women as pure creatures who ought to be protected, supported, and adored and whose love is necessary to make a man complete o simultaneously implies women are weak, and best suited for conventional roles o being put on a pedestal is confining (but the man who put her there interprets this as cherishing) o more socially accepted • hostile sexism: antipathy towards women who are viewed as usurping men’s power o women perceived as seeking to control men (either through sexuality or feminist ideology) • the 2 are complementary, cross-culturally prevalent, both predict gender inequality • women consistently reject hostile sexism and endorse benevolent sexism • Tavris and Wade: pedestal-gutter syndrome (Madonna-whore dichotomy)most researchers have identified sexism only with hostility toward women • Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI): 22-item self-report measure of sexist attitudes with separate 11-item Hostile and Benevolent Scales • cross-cultural differences in ambivalent sexism are predictable and systematic The Nature of Sexism • Allport’s definition of prejudice: an antipathy based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization o assumed that discriminatory acts stem from antipathy • patriarchy in most cultures o Hunter-gatherer probably egalitarian (but matriarchy theory debunked) • recent research shows that overall attitudes toward women are favorable: “women are wonderful” effectHow can a group be almost universally disadvantaged yet loved? o favorable communal traits suit them for domestic roles o communal attributes place you in a subordinate position in daily interactions o subordination and affection go hand-in-hand: dominant groups (men) prefer to act warmly toward subordinates (women), offering patronizing affection as a reward for “knowing their place” rather than rebelling • Allport’s revision: the net effect of prejudice is to place the object of prejudice at some disadvantage o crux of prejudice isn’t antipathy but social inequality o therefore, a patronizing but subjectively positive orientation toward women that reinforces gender inequality is a form of prejudice Why Benevolent Prejudices Matter • both benevolent and hostile sexism are “legitimizing ideologies”: beliefs that help justify group inequality • benevolent paternalism: members of dominant groups characterize their privileges as well-deserved, even as a heavy responsibility that they must bear o example- the “white man’s burden” and colonialism: the resources seized from occupied territories were viewed as fair payment for European enlightenment o example- US slavery • if men’s power is viewed as a burden, as legitimized by their greater responsibility and self-sacrifice, then their privileged role seems justified • to the extent women depend on men to be their protectors and providers, they are less likely to protest men’s power or to seek their own independent status o study: college women who implicitly associated male romantic partners with chivalrous images (e.g. Prince Charming) had less ambitious career goals, presumably because they were counting on a future husband for economic support o study: Spanish women who didn’t have paid employment scored higher in benevolent sexism o study on women’s reactions to discriminatory scenarios (e.g. husband forbidding them to go out at night): acts perceived as less serious when the perpetrators expressed a benevolent justification as opposed to a hostile one  women who scored higher in benevolent sexism were more likely to excuse benevolently justified discrimination by non- intimate men (e.g. boss) and hostile discrimination by husband (only if had no paid employment) Hostile and Benevolent Sexism: Universal Prejudices? • hypothesized that hostile and benevolent sexism are predictable products of structural relations between men and women common to human societies: o a) men are typically accorded more status and power than women (patriarchy) o b) men and women are often differentiated in terms of social roles and trait ascriptions (gender differentiation) o c) male-female interactions are conditioned by sexual reproduction, a biological constant that creates dependencies and intimacy between the sexes (sexual reproduction) • hostile and benevolent sexism are separate but positively correlated factors (indicating that these ideologies are complementary, mutually supportive justifications of patriarchy and conventional gender relations) • 3 benevolent sexism subfactors: o 1. protective paternalism (e.g. women ought to be rescued first in emergencies) o 2. complementary gender differentiation (e.g. women are purer than men) o heterosexual intimacy (e.g. every man ought to have a wom
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