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Chapter 8: Sexism

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

CHAPTER 8: SEXISM Sexism: negative attitudes and behavior toward someone on the basis of their gender. Discrimination can impair performance, limit opportunities and affect ones self-concept. Recent research suggests that gender stereotypes are so well learned that they automatically influence our perceptions and judgments, often without our conscious awareness of such bias. GENDER STEREOTYPES DEAUX AND LEWIS: found that if people just know that a target individual is a man or woman, they will draw on gender stereotype information in their inferences about the target. However, once the perceiver knows more specific information about the target (i.e. the components discussed above, such as physical appearance, traits, etc) the influence of the gender category will diminish in the perceivers evaluation of the target, and the target will be viewed according to the specific component information. MEASUREMENT OF GENDER STEREOTYPES Opposite suggests that men and women are as different as hot and cold. Which is untrue, they are merely difference sexes. Not opposite. The notion that women and men are so diametrically opposite represents a bipolar assumption among both researchers and the lay public alike. This assumption states that a person has characteristics that are associated with either males or females, but not both. The bipolar assumption has been strongly criticized, primarily because little evidence supports the notion that men and women have either masculine or feminine traits, but not both, or that the presence of a number of supposedly masculine traits in an individual necessarily means that the individual cannot have a number of supposedly feminine traits Dualistic view, which suggests that people can have some of both agentic and communal traits. Agentic are those that have traditionally been associated with males, traits that indicate task orientation, assertiveness and a striving for achievement. Communal traits or expressive traits are those that have traditionally been associate with females, such as the desire to foster relationships, to be sensitive, and to get along with others. www.notesolution.comEagly and Mladinic suggests that people actually have quite favorable attitudes toward women. ATWS & open-ended questionnaire. (204) Most likely people had negative view of the idea of male-female equality, not negative views of women. Why? Men may react negatively to threats to their power dominance over women in society. ORIGIN OF GENDER STEREOTYPES Religion: Bem and Bem have found that many major religions in the world have taught that women are different from, inferior to, and subservient to men. People who are more devoutly religious are more likely to hold stereotypical gender role attitudes and those attitudes tend to reflect a benevolent sexism. Social Learning From very young age, children are taught what it means to be a male or female in society. According to the social learning theory, children learn (through reinforcement and modeling) the expectations, goals, interests, abilities and other aspects associated with their gender. Childrens conceptualization of what their gender means to them is shaped by their environment, and, most importantly, by their parents. Children also learn about their gender by watching their parents and important others in their environment engage in behaviour (modeling). According to Macklin and Baker, a likely reason is that parents are egalitarian in their socialization of children and that the stereotypic gender roles and characteristics are acquired via other socialization agents, such as the childs friends and teachers, and through the media. Cultural Institutions: Attitudes abbot gender is certainly influenced by continual exposure to gender relevant information contained in television shows and commercials. Men and women look to their parents as a guide for understanding the nature of the respective roles of husband and wife in the household. Because their parents are more likely to have traditional gender roles in their marriage. Another way that gender stereotypes in advertisements influence gender attitudes is through normative and informational influence.
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