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Michael Inzlicht

LECTURE 8 EXPERIENCING PREJUDICE II Group Differences in Measurement of Intellectual Performance Recall Major & O’Brien’s MOVIE: Testing & Intelligence - An IQ of a 100 shows that you are average in certain aspects of intelligence than most people - Cognitive tests test your mental ability - Personality tests test the non cognitive aspects of your personality like interests and values - Projective tests like the Rorschach assess mental and emotional problems. The random patterns reflect your innermost thoughts - Holton tried to show that intelligence was hereditary/environment - Bine’s test wanted to test the intelligence of school children. He quantified student’s performances. o He tested many children of many ages; a norm was determined for each age . o Other kids were then tested against the norm to determine their intelligence level - Statistics showed that blacks and immigrants were inferior - Lewis Turman adapted Bine’s test for American school children, which led to the introduction of the IQ; which was mental age/ chronological age x 100 = IQ. - Wexler developed non-verbal sections of the test so that language wasn’t a barrier. This was small children and immigrants could also be tested. - A test has to be valid (measures what it is supposed to measure). Because of this, the test themselves need to be assessed and also how they are used/misused. - Stereotype threat- effect that labelling and STs can have on a person’s ability to perform in a given situation. Defined by Steele - Just knowing that others can judge us based on our social identity is enough to distort our performance - Steele conducted a test where male and females had a math test. o If a girl wrote the test when told that it does not test gender difference, they scored the same as men; if a girl was told that it predicted gender difference, women scored less than men because of the stereotype threat men are better in math than women Black-White IQ Distribution: White Black 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Male-Female Math Performance Difference: 0.7 0.6 Adulthood 0.5 0.4 College 0.3 High School 0.2 favouring males (d) Elementary Magnitude of sex difference Junior High School -0.1 - Males and females have the same performance in elementary school, but the difference between them gets larger and larger as they progress through life - Groups are different probably because they have different socializing environments ORIGINS OF INTELLIGENCE: Nature or Nurture? Genetics - Intelligence is highly heritable  High correlation between parent IQ and child IQ  IQ of identical twins is highly related; more than fraternals  IQ of identical twins reared apart is highly related  IQ of adopted children is related to IQ of biological mother, less related to IQ of adopted mother Environment - Environment also plays role  IQ of identical twins reared apart is less related than IQ of identical twins reared together  IQ of fraternal twins is more strongly related than IQ of regular siblings because they are treated more similarly and have the same 50% of genetic make-up as their siblings  IQ of adopted kids are more similar than unrelated individuals reared apart because of shared environments  Impoverished environments related to lower IQ Nature vs. Nurture? - Both Nature and Nurture contribute to intelligence - But genetics certainly play role  Heritability index = 0.50 (may be as high as 0.65) - If within-group difference has genetic component, perhaps between-group difference has genetic component too.  No. Between-group differences may be caused by different factors than within-group difference Within vs. Between Group Differences - Assumption that the height of the stalk is purely determined by the genetics of the seed. In pot A, some are taller than others because they are genetically better; same with the stalks in pot B. - Pot A has rich soil, while pot B has poor soil (environmental factors). - Within group (ex within pot A), the differences are caused by genetics, but BETWEEN groups (between pot A and B) can't be explained by genetics because the environment factor is involved. ***Why are groups different? A: Not different B: Tests are unfair C: Different socializing environments D: Genetics Answer: C Does the Difference Exist? - “Intellectual performance” (whether biased or not) reveal robust differences. - BUT, what does this difference mean? Black-White Mean Verbal SAT Gap 125 120 115 110 105 100 -hite Gap 90 85 Black 80 Are the Tests Unfair? - The tests are culturally biased  External Bias- (external validity) - does this test predict real world outcomes for people. Does it reveal differences in prediction for real people? If you put blacks and whites who both score 100 on an IQ test, it’ll predict slightly different things for blacks than for whites so there’s some bias  Internal Bias- is there something about the test itself that favors one group over another? Environment - SES and IQ are positively related  If groups are over-represented in low SES, will also be over-represented in low IQ - Match Black-White environment:  Black children adopted by White parents have higher IQ than non-adopted Blacks  Difference in Black/White IQ diminished when socioeconomic status is
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